Recalculating: how drivers cause traffic by not taking the best route

Yeah, this might be your fault. Image: Getty.

If you use a car to get around, every time you get behind the wheel you’re confronted with a choice: how will you navigate to your destination? Whether it’s a trip you take every day, such as from home to work, or to someplace you haven’t been before, you need to decide on a route.

Transportation research has traditionally assumed that drivers are rational and choose the optimal route that minimises travel time. Traffic prediction models are based on this seemingly reasonable assumption. Planners use these models in their efforts to keep traffic flowing freely – when they evaluate a change to a road network, for instance, or the impact of a new carpool lane.

In order for traffic models to be reliable, they must do a good job reproducing user behavior. But there’s little empirical support for the assumption at their core – that drivers will pick the optimal route.

For that reason, we decided to investigate how people make these choices in their real lives. Understanding how drivers build a route to reach their destination will help us gain insights into human movement behavior. Better knowledge of individual routing can help improve urban infrastructure and GPS directions systems – not just for one driver, but for everyone.

Beating congestion is a big goal: one estimate put the cost of traffic in 2014 at $160bn in the USA alone, with 42 extra hours of travel time and $960 worth of extra fuel for every commuter.


How do people really go?

Using GPS data collected for several months for hundreds of drivers in four European cities, we studied individuals' routing behavior, looking for interesting patterns in their choices.

We discovered that people use only a few routes when moving between their relevant places, even when those trips are repeated again and again over extended periods. Most people have a single favorite route for trips they perform routinely, and a few alternatives routes they take less frequently to the same destinations.

So did people in fact usually choose the optimal route?

In short, no. It turned out roughly half of the favorite routes are not the optimal routes suggested by navigation devices, such as those offered by some popular mapping apps for smartphones. If we also consider drivers' alternative choices, even fewer routes are optimal – only a third overall minimise travel time.

Our data provide empirical proof that drivers are not taking the optimal route, directly contradicting the shortest travel-time assumption.

Why would drivers take a nonoptimal route?

What’s behind this result? A unique answer that is valid for every driver won’t be easy to find.

Prior small-scale studies found that many factors, some seemingly minor, might influence route preference. For example, people tend to choose routes going south rather than routes of equal lengths that go north. People favor routes that are straight at the beginning, instead of shorter ones that aren’t straight.

Landmarks also influence route choice, by attracting more trips than travel-time minimisation would expect. A novel app for iPhones builds on that very concept and allows people to find the most “interesting” route between two points.

People might not be able to determine which route is optimal, among all possible choices, because of limited information and limited ability to process big amounts of information. Or, even if they can, people might deliberately make different choices, according to personal preference. Many factors can influence preference, including fuel consumption, route reliability, simplicity and pleasure.

Drivers' apparent flexibility on route choices may provide an opportunity to alleviate overall congestion. For instance, smartphone apps could offer points and vouchers to drivers who are willing to take longer routes that avoid congested areas. Navigation app Waze has already changed drivers' habits in some cities, so it’s not so far-fetched to imagine a gamification system that reduces congestion.

How far from the best route are we?

For our next study, rather than trying to understand what drives individual route choices, we aimed to quantify how far those choices are from optimal.

A sample of the transformed trajectories reveals the shape of human routes. Regardless of the real start and destination points, every transformed trajectory begins at the circle on the left and ends at the circle on the right. Click to expand Image: author provided.

It’s hard to directly compare all the different trips undertaken in a city, because they involve many locations and are different in length. To make this task easier, we transformed trajectories so that they all look alike, regardless of their actual source, destination and length. We rotated, translated and scaled each route so that all trajectories would start and finish at the same two points in a new reference system.

After this transformation, all the routes look as if they spanned the same two points; they all look similar in length, but their shape is preserved. What we found by plotting a sample of the transformed routes was the intrinsic variability in human routes.

Intriguingly, our abstraction of all the trips sort of looks like a magnet’s force lines, with the routes' origins and destinations in place of the magnet’s north and south poles. By analyzing a density plot of the transformed trajectories, we found the vast majority are fully contained within an ellipse that has the same shape independent of the scale, with the start and endpoints as foci. This ellipse effectively makes up the boundary of human routes.

The density plot shows how likely you are to be at any position between the start (on the left) and the destination (on the right). Colors indicate, in logarithmic scale, from dark to bright, the spots more likely to be occupied by drivers on that trip. Image: Antonio Lima/creative commons.

The ellipse also helps us measure how direct a route is. The ellipse’s eccentricity tells us how elongated it is. An eccentricity close to 1 means the ellipse is similar to a line (high width and low height), while an eccentricity close to 0 means it is similar to a circle (width and height roughly similar).

Generally, a straight route is not a viable option because of physical obstacles, such as buildings. Drivers deviate from that idealised shortest path according to the street network and personal preferences. While these two phenomena are hard to model, we found that they are bounded by a ellipse of a particular shape, having a high eccentricity equal to 0.8.

To our surprise, the observed shape of the ellipse did not change with distance between the endpoints. It looks like in an urban setting, drivers are willing to take detours that are roughly proportional to the distance between their starting point and destination. Routes that involve bigger detours are simply not taken, or split into two separate trips.

Our study uncovered basic rules of a realistic routing model that captures individual behavior in a urban environment. These findings can be used as building blocks for new routing models that better predict traffic. And now that we know drivers have some quantifiable flexibility in their routes, we can use this information to design incentive mechanisms to alleviate congestion on busier roads, or carpooling plans based on individuals' preferred routes.The Conversation

Marta González is associate professor of civil & environmental engineering at Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyAntonio Lima is a Ph.D. student in computer science at the University of Birmingham.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

 
 
 
 

Covid-19 is highlighting cities' unequal access to green space

In the UK, Londoners are most likely to rely on their local park for green space, and have the best access to parks. (Leon Neal/Getty Images)

As coronavirus lockdowns ease, people are flooding back to parks – but not everyone has easy access to green space in their city.

Statistics from Google show that park attendance in countries across the globe has shot up as people have been allowed to move around their cities again.

This is especially true in urban areas, where densely populated neighbourhoods limit the size of private green space – meaning residents have to go to the park to get in touch with nature. Readers from England can use our interactive tool below to find out how much green space people have access to in their area, and how it compares to the rest of the country.

 

Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s announcement Monday that people are allowed to mingle in parks and gardens with groups of up to six people was partially following what people were doing already.

Data from mobile phones show people have been returning to parks across the UK, and also across Europe, as weather improves and lockdown eases.

People have been returning to parks across the world

Stay-at-home requirements were eased in Italy on 4 May, which led to a flood of people returning to parks.

France eased restrictions on 1 May, and the UK eased up slightly on 13 May, allowing people to sit down in public places so long as they remain socially distanced.

Other countries have seen park attendance rise without major easing of lockdown – including Canada, Spain, and the US (although states there have individual rules and some have eased restrictions).

In some countries, people never really stopped going to parks.

Authorities in the Netherlands and Germany were not as strict as other countries about their citizens visiting local parks during lockdown, while Sweden has famously been avoiding placing many restrictions on people’s daily lives.


There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that access to green space has major benefits for public health.

A recent study by researchers at the University of Exeter found that spending time in the garden is linked to similar benefits for health and wellbeing as living in wealthy areas.

People with access to a private garden also had higher psychological wellbeing, and those with an outdoor space such as a yard were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those without access to outdoor space. 

Separate UK research has found that living with a regular view of a green space provides health benefits worth £300 per person per year.

Access is not shared equally, however, which has important implications for equality under lockdown, and the spread of disease.

Statistics from the UK show that one in eight households has no garden, making access to parks more important.

There is a geographic inequality here. Londoners, who have the least access to private gardens, are most likely to rely on their local park for green space, and have the best access to parks. 

However the high population in the capital means that on the whole, green space per person is lower – an issue for people living in densely populated cities everywhere.

There is also an occupational inequality.

Those on low pay – including in what are statistically classed as “semi-skilled” and “unskilled” manual occupations, casual workers and those who are unemployed – are almost three times as likely as those in managerial, administrative, professional occupations to be without a garden, meaning they rely more heavily on their local park.

Britain’s parks and fields are also at significant risk of development, according to new research by the Fields in Trust charity, which shows the number of people living further than a 10-minute walk from a public park rising by 5% over the next five years. That loss of green spaces is likely to impact disadvantaged communities the most, the researchers say.

This is borne out by looking at the parts of the country that have private gardens.

The least deprived areas have the largest gardens

Though the relationship is not crystal clear, it shows at the top end: Those living in the least deprived areas have the largest private green space.

Although the risk of catching coronavirus is lower outdoors, spending time in parks among other people is undoubtedly more risky when it comes to transmitting or catching the virus than spending time in your own outdoor space. 

Access to green space is therefore another example – along with the ability to work from home and death rates – of how the burden of the pandemic has not been equally shouldered by all.

Michael Goodier is a data reporter at New Statesman Media Group, and Josh Rayman is a graphics and data visualisation developer at New Statesman Media Group.