This map shows how Roman Britain kept the show on the road... by imagining it as a tube network

Roman roads fanning out from London across the south of the Roman province of Britain. Image: Sasha Trubetskoy

What’s the best way to get from Londinium to Isca Dumnoniorum, via a refreshing and restorative pit stop in Aquae Sulis? If such questions have never occurred to you, perhaps your previous incarnation was not as a wellness-aware man-about-town in Roman Britain.

But if, like me, this question is one of many of its kind that keep you up at night, there is finally a map to cater to all your needs.

Sasha Trubetskoy is perhaps the internet’s most surprising viral map guru. At just 20 years old, the student at the University of Chicago defies preconceptions of historical cartographers as reclusive, older men.

And this, his latest project, is truly a joy.

Click to expand. Image: Sasha Trubetskoy.

Trubetskoy painstakingly researched all the Roman roads of Britain to produce this map, showing connectivity across Roman Britain, with major Roman settlements from Londinium (London) to Dubris (Dover), Isca Dumononiorum (Exeter) to Verulamium (St Albans), and Eboracum (York) to Lindum (Lincoln).

And then he turned them into a geographically laid out tube map, with lines and interchange stations. Glorious.

Much of his data came from the Pleagios digital map, but a lot of the historical research came from Roman-Britain.co.uk, a resource that is simultaneously fascinating and revealing about how little we know about Roman Britain, relatively speaking. We don’t actually know the Latin names of many of the Roman roads, for example: that's why “Watling Street”, perhaps the most famous of the Roman roads, running from Dubris to Viroconium (now just a village in Shropshire) doesn’t exactly sound that Latinate.

More observant map readers may notice that some Roman cities have modern English names, too:

A zoom view of the North. Image: Sasha Trubetskoy

This too is a sign of how little we know: Roman remains have been found during archaeological explorations of those places, but we don’t have records or evidence as to the Latin names of those settlements.

Very noticeable, also, is the fact that Londonium is still at the heart of the network. Even at the time of the Romans’ occupation of Britain, it was the national hub. It became Britain’s largest city in roughly 75AD, and was made the capital of the imperial province not long afterwards. Hence, just as many of today’s motorways mostly snake out from London, so many of the key arterial Roman roads come out of Londinium.


Watling Street ran through it, and forms today’s A5, that runs in an almost-perfect straight line from Marble Arch to Stanmore before it navigates a kink and continues up towards St Albans; Gread Road runs out towards Camulodunum (Colchester); Devil’s Highway runs to Calleva (Silchester); and Ermine Street ploughs up towards Eboracum (York).

The map is of course most enjoyable when pored over in a private, feverish, personal way, so I’ll just add one thing. I’d never heard of Watling Street II (Watling Street the Second? The Lesser Spotted Watling Street?) which runs a very long course from Venta Silurum (Caerwent), near Caldicot at the Welsh end of both Severn bridges, up to Veluniate (Borrowstounness) via Deva (Chester), Mamucium (Manchester) and Luguvalium (Carlisle).

Someone tell George Osborne: maybe we can get a quirky alternative to HS3 to produce some kind of double-Celtic link for the Northern Powerhouse.

You can see the full map here, and a version with town names in English here.

Happy map reading. 

Jack May is a regular contributor to CityMetric and tweets as @JackO_May.

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Everything you ever wanted to know about the Seoul Metro System but were too afraid to ask

Gwanghwamoon subway station on line 5 in Seoul, 2010. Image: Getty.

Seoul’s metro system carries 7m passengers a day across 1,000 miles of track. The system is as much a regional commuter railway as an urban subway system. Without technically leaving the network, one can travel from Asan over 50 miles to the south of central Seoul, all the way up to the North Korean border 20 miles north of the city.

Fares are incredibly low for a developed country. A basic fare of 1,250 won (about £1) will allow you to travel 10km; it’s only an extra 100 won (about 7p) to travel every additional 5km on most lines.

The trains are reasonably quick: maximum speeds of 62mph and average operating speeds of around 20mph make them comparable to London Underground. But the trains are much more spacious, air conditioned and have wi-fi access. Every station also has protective fences, between platform and track, to prevent suicides and accidents.

The network

The  service has a complex system of ownership and operation. The Seoul Metro Company (owned by Seoul City council) operates lines 5-8 on its own, but lines 1-4 are operated jointly with Korail, the state-owned national rail company. Meanwhile, Line 9 is operated jointly between Trans-Dev (a French company which operates many buses in northern England) and RATP (The Parisian version of TfL).

Then there’s Neotrans, owned by the Korean conglomerate Doosan, which owns and operates the driverless Sinbundang line. The Incheon city government, which borders Seoul to the west, owns and operates Incheon Line 1 and Line 2.

The Airport Express was originally built and owned by a corporation jointly owned by 11 large Korean firms, but is now mostly owned by Korail. The Uijeongbu light railway is currently being taken over by the Uijeongbu city council (that one’s north of Seoul) after the operating company went bankrupt. And the Everline people mover is operated by a joint venture owned by Bombardier and a variety of Korean companies.

Seoul’s subway map. Click to expand. Image: Wikimedia Commons.

The rest of the lines are operated by the national rail operator Korail. The fare structure is either identical or very similar for all of these lines. All buses and trains in the region are accessible with a T-money card, similar to London’s Oyster card. Fares are collected centrally and then distributed back to operators based on levels of usage.

Funding

The Korean government spends around £27bn on transport every year: that works out at 10 per cent more per person than the British government spends.  The Seoul subway’s annual loss of around £200m is covered by this budget.

The main reason the loss is much lower than TfL’s £458m is that, despite Seoul’s lower fares, it also has much lower maintenance costs. The oldest line, Line 1 is only 44 years old.


Higher levels of automation and lower crime rates also mean there are fewer staff. Workers pay is also lower: a newly qualified driver will be paid around £27,000 a year compared to £49,000 in London.

New infrastructure is paid for by central government. However, investment in the capital does not cause the same regional rivalries as it does in the UK for a variety of reasons. Firstly, investment is not so heavily concentrated in the capital. Five other cities have subways; the second city of Busan has an extensive five-line network.

What’s more, while investment is still skewed towards Seoul, it’s a much bigger city than London, and South Korea is physically a much smaller country than the UK (about the size of Scotland and Wales combined). Some 40 per cent of the national population lives on the Seoul network – and everyone else who lives on the mainland can be in Seoul within 3 hours.

Finally, politically the biggest divide in South Korea is between the south-west and the south-east (the recently ousted President Park Geun-Hye won just 11 per cent of the vote in the south west, while winning 69 per cent in the south-east). Seoul is seen as neutral territory.  

Problems

A driverless train on the Shinbundang Line. Image: Wikicommons.

The system is far from perfect. Seoul’s network is highly radial. It’s incredibly cheap and easy to travel from outer lying areas to the centre, and around the centre itself. But travelling from one of Seoul’s satellite cities to another by public transport is often difficult. A journey from central Goyang (population: 1m) to central Incheon (population: 3m) is around 30 minutes by car. By public transport, it takes around 2 hours. There is no real equivalent of the London Overground.

There is also a lack of fast commuter services. The four-track Seoul Line 1 offers express services to Incheon and Cheonan, and some commuter towns south of the city are covered by intercity services. But most large cities of hundreds of thousands of people within commuting distance (places comparable to Reading or Milton Keynes) are reliant on the subway network, and do not have a fast rail link that takes commuters directly to the city centre.

This is changing however with the construction of a system modelled on the Paris RER and London’s Crossrail. The GTX will operate at maximum speed of 110Mph. The first line (of three planned) is scheduled to open in 2023, and will extend from the new town of Ilsan on the North Korean border to the new town of Dongtan about 25km south of the city centre.

The system will stop much less regularly than Crossrail or the RER resulting in drastic cuts in journey times. For example, the time from llsan to Gangnam (of Gangnam Style fame) will be cut from around 1hr30 to just 17 minutes. When the three-line network is complete most of the major cities in the region will have a direct fast link to Seoul Station, the focal point of the GTX as well as the national rail network. A very good public transport network is going to get even better.