Here are five tricks to get cheaper rail tickets in Britain

Get your life on track. Image: Dave Strom/Flickr/creative commons.

British rail commuters are being told they are likely to face fare hikes. Price increases aside, the rules around tickets are complex and date back to the 1980s, which means there’s a bewildering array of tickets available: anytime, saver, super saver, season, advanced, first class, second class, child, adult, privilege, two together – to name a few.

A simple matrix gives over 200 ticket types for all destinations. Add in a second operator or specific requirements, and the choice can easily be over 250. People are pretty much left to interpret all this for themselves, and make the decision that’s right for them.

With 20 years of experience in the rail sector, working for train operating companies, Network Rail and in non-government organisations, together with a keen focus on customer service through our research at the University of Huddersfield Business School, we thought it would be worth sharing some tips on how to navigate train tickets. So we have come up with some simple rules of thumb, which can help you get better prices on your train tickets.

1. Book in advance

The further in advance you buy a ticket (online), the cheaper it will be. For instance, a standard class single, Milton Keynes to Glasgow Central, leaving in the morning would cost £22 (only valid on the 10.13am train on September 12, 2018, booked July 2018). By contrast, an off-peak ticket – which can be bought in advance or on the day – would cost £64.05, while an anytime ticket would cost £155.50.

It’s important to know that, for the most part, all train websites sell the same tickets at the same regulated price. For advanced fares (bought before travelling) the train company that covers the majority of the journey you are travelling may offer a cheaper ticket price not available on other sites, so its worth checking who the main operator is and visiting their website or budget spin offs.

For example, Milton Keynes to Southport (Merseyside) will require you to use two operators, probably Virgin Trains and Mersey Rail. In the case Virgin Trains is likely to offer the cheapest advanced tickets for this route.

2. Late starts and split ticketing

Most journeys starting before 9.30am will face a peak time premium, so always start your journey after that time if possible. If you have to start before 9.30am, look at buying two tickets; the first covering you for the part of the trip that you take before 9.30am and the second for afterwards. This is called “split ticketing”.

Take your time. Image: David McKelvey/Flickr/creative commons.

For example, Cheltenham Spa to Edinburgh Waverley on a Saturday costs £154 direct – that’s £59.40 more than splitting the ticket at Manchester Piccadilly. Two tickets – one covering Cheltenham Spa to Manchester, and the other Manchester to Edinburgh – will cost £94.60.

And providing your train is routed via Manchester, you don’t even have to get off the train. You can figure out and book your route yourself, or there are some websites that can do it for you.

3. Saving with singles and returns

Anytime returns, setting out before 9.30am, often cost twice as much as a single. Meanwhile, tickets valid after 9.30am often have a return price that’s less than £1 more than the single. So, it’s often cheaper to buy a single and a return, if you think you might travel the same route again.

Return journeys are typically valid for a month, so consider using them for other journeys. For example, an off-peak single from Huddersfield to Birmingham is £58.60, while an off-peak return is £59.60. If I’m travelling before 9.30am, I might buy a single for Huddersfield to Birmingham, and a return for Birmingham to Huddersfield.

This is because the two singles will cost £137.60, but I could pay £140.30 for a single and an anytime return. Then, if I happen to have a night out in Manchester (or anywhere else on the Huddersfield to Birmingham route) I can use the return to get there, potentially saving some of the cost of the fare.

4. Check the operator

Always check if there’s more than one operator running a route, and if they have specific tickets. For instance, the London to Birmingham journey is served by three operators, which offer a direct service, all with a different journey duration and price.

For a departure before 9am, a ticket with Virgin will cost £176.50 and the journey will last 80 minutes, London North Western Railway (Formerly London Midland) will cost £29.50 and last 130 minutes, and Chiltern will charge £30.50 for a journey lasting 120 minutes.

5. Take a break

All tickets are valid via any reasonable route, unless specifically stated on the ticket. This means that you’re allowed to break your journey, by getting off at a stop along the way (as long as you still respect restrictions, such as off-peak travel). This means you can do some quite remarkable journeys on strange tickets.


The rule is rather arcane and not well understood. Because of the challenges this can cause, the railways simply state that “a route needs to be reasonable” – without making clear what that entails. Basically, you must be able to justify your route and never double back on any section of track. If challenged, you must explain the route you are taking, in accordance with the rule.

The ConversationAs an example, Swindon and Birmingham might reasonably be visited on a ticket to Manchester, or even Edinburgh, from London. The fact you can break your journey means you could schedule a meeting or visit friends at any or all of these cities. In some cases, you may not even make your end destination... but bear in mind the ticket is only valid for one calendar day.

Marcus Mayers, Visiting Research Fellow, University of Huddersfield and David Bamford, Professor of Operations Management, University of Huddersfield.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

 
 
 
 

What does the fate of Detroit tell us about the future of Silicon Valley?

Detroit, 2008. Image: Getty.

There was a time when California’s Santa Clara Valley, bucolic home to orchards and vineyards, was known as “the valley of heart’s delight”. The same area was later dubbed “Silicon Valley,” shorthand for the high-tech combination of creativity, capital and California cool. However, a backlash is now well underway – even from the loyal gadget-reviewing press. Silicon Valley increasingly conjures something very different: exploitation, excess, and elitist detachment.

Today there are 23 active Superfund toxic waste cleanup sites in Santa Clara County, California. Its culture is equally unhealthy: Think of the Gamergate misogynist harassment campaigns, the entitled “tech bros” and rampant sexism and racism in Silicon Valley firms. These same companies demean the online public with privacy breaches and unauthorised sharing of users’ data. Thanks to the companies’ influences, it’s extremely expensive to live in the area. And transportation is so clogged that there are special buses bringing tech-sector workers to and from their jobs. Some critics even perceive threats to democracy itself.

In a word, Silicon Valley has become toxic.

Silicon Valley’s rise is well documented, but the backlash against its distinctive culture and unscrupulous corporations hints at an imminent twist in its fate. As historians of technology and industry, we find it helpful to step back from the breathless champions and critics of Silicon Valley and think about the long term. The rise and fall of another American economic powerhouse – Detroit – can help explain how regional reputations change over time.

The rise and fall of Detroit

The city of Detroit became a famous node of industrial capitalism thanks to the pioneers of the automotive age. Men such as Henry Ford, Horace and John Dodge, and William Durant cultivated Detroit’s image as a centre of technical novelty in the early 20th century.

The very name “Detroit” soon became a metonym for the industrial might of the American automotive industry and the source of American military power. General Motors president Charles E. Wilson’s remark that, “For years I thought what was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa,” was an arrogant but accurate account of Detroit’s place at the heart of American prosperity and global leadership.

The public’s view changed after the 1950s. The auto industry’s leading firms slid into bloated bureaucratic rigidity and lost ground to foreign competitors. By the 1980s, Detroit was the image of blown-out, depopulated post-industrialism.

In retrospect – and perhaps as a cautionary tale for Silicon Valley – the moral decline of Detroit’s elite was evident long before its economic decline. Henry Ford became famous in the pre-war era for the cars and trucks that carried his name, but he was also an anti-Semite, proto-fascist and notorious enemy of organised labor. Detroit also was the source of defective and deadly products that Ralph Nader criticized in 1965 as “unsafe at any speed”. Residents of the region now bear the costs of its amoral industrial past, beset with high unemployment and poisonous drinking water.


A new chapter for Silicon Valley

If the story of Detroit can be simplified as industrial prowess and national prestige, followed by moral and economic decay, what does that say about Silicon Valley? The term “Silicon Valley” first appeared in print in the early 1970s and gained widespread use throughout the decade. It combined both place and activity. The Santa Clara Valley, a relatively small area south of the San Francisco Bay, home to San Jose and a few other small cities, was the base for a computing revolution based on silicon chips. Companies and workers flocked to the Bay Area, seeking a pleasant climate, beautiful surroundings and affordable land.

By the 1980s, venture capitalists and companies in the Valley had mastered the silicon arts and were getting filthy, stinking rich. This was when “Silicon Valley” became shorthand for an industrial cluster where universities, entrepreneurs and capital markets fuelled technology-based economic development. Journalists fawned over successful companies like Intel, Cisco and Google, and analysts filled shelves with books and reports about how other regions could become the “next Silicon Valley”.

Many concluded that its culture set it apart. Boosters and publications like Wired magazine celebrated the combination of the Bay Area hippie legacy with the libertarian individualism embodied by the late Grateful Dead lyricist John Perry Barlow. The libertarian myth masked some crucial elements of Silicon Valley’s success – especially public funds dispersed through the U.S. Defense Department and Stanford University.

The ConversationIn retrospect, perhaps that ever-expanding gap between Californian dreams and American realities led to the undoing of Silicon Valley. Its detachment from the lives and concerns of ordinary Americans can be seen today in the unhinged Twitter rants of automaker Elon Musk, the extreme politics of PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel, and the fatuous dreams of immortality of Google’s vitamin-popping director of engineering, Ray Kurzweil. Silicon Valley’s moral decline has never been clearer, and it now struggles to survive the toxic mess it has created.

Andrew L. Russell, Dean, College of Arts & Sciences; Professor of History, SUNY Polytechnic Institute and Lee Vinsel, Assistant Professor of Science and Technology Studies, Virginia Tech.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.