Does Dublin really need a metro network?

Concept art for the mid-2000s version of the Dublin Metro. Image: National Transport Authority, Ireland.

Dubliners have always looked to other European capitals with envy. For decades, the city’s commuters have made do with with limited bus routes, a badly connected airport and traffic congestion that all seemed hardly befitting for an up-and-coming global city.  

Today, the city has changed. A sparkling new cross-city tram has proved popular, while the government says a systematic reform of bus routes will address long-standing complaints – even if it’s been controversial so far.

Ireland has changed, too, and is now more likely to be found preening itself and strutting on the international stage. Facebook, Google and Twitter have all come to roost in Dublin; and the capital has positioned itself as the technology hub of Europe after Brexit.

Yet beneath this confidence lies an abiding insecurity. It was visible in the hand-wringing over the Apple tax decision in the European Court of Justice and was clear too from the national soul-searching when the conference once known as the Dublin Web Summit decamped to Lisbon, blaming Dublin’s sub-par infrastructure.

The proposed system. Image: National Transport Authority, Ireland.

But most of all, it’s obvious in the city’s love–hate affair with its proposed metro system. Plans were first afoot in the early 2000s for a metro to connect the airport to the city centre – until the 2008 financial crisis got in the way and put a halt to the scheme.

Yet the metro dream is still alive, raising the question: why does the government want another decade of construction and a €3.5bn bill?

The driving motivation, of course, is to connect Dublin Airport – which welcomes 80 perc cent of Ireland’s incoming flights – to the city. There are other considerations too, such as plans to encourage the growth of Fingal, the municipality to Dublin’s north, as a repository of the city’s growing population. Estimates suggest that by 2040 nearly 1.4m people will live in the wider Dublin area.

Dublin isn’t alone when it comes to an obsession with metros: for decades, they’ve been the go-to infrastructure project for aspirational cities. The EU has funded a number of metro developments in Europe and beyond as part of the promotion of sustainable urban development, while in China metros are being built with reckless abandon in cities that arguably don’t need them. In Brisbane a new metro project is just beginning in earnest after years of wrangling.


Even two decades ago, research from the Centre for Transport Studies in University College London was questioning the rationale behind the metro becoming the de facto upgrade of choice for enthusiastic city planners. One article cited a city council leader in an unnamed British city who saw the metro system in Lille and “decided that his city had to have one”.

Yet despite this growing scepticism, city planners are still making the case for metro systems using decades’ old rationales, whether by arguing that metros boost development in peripheral areas, or that they’re better for the environment.

This same logic, often taken at face value, is fuelling the debate in Dublin today. But the city’s population density seems scarcely large enough to economically sustain a metro system, while little time has been spent considering how an upgraded bus network could solve some of the problems at a fraction of the cost. If construction begins as proposed in 2021, it would also immediately follow two significant and disruptive projects – the just completed extension of the tram network and the mooted pedestrianisation of Dublin’s College Green area.

This isn’t to deny that parts of North Dublin, namely the rapidly growing Fingal area, would benefit from a metro, or that the airport requires transport links that don’t grind to a halt in heavy traffic.

But €3.5 billion and several years of disruption seems a high price to pay for a lack of imagination in urban planning. For a country that has learnt the hard way to be wary of infrastructural chimeras, the government still seems to have a one-track mind when it comes to a Dublin metro.

 
 
 
 

Never mind Brexit: TfL just released new tube map showing an interchange at Camden Town!!!

Mmmmm tube-y goodness. Image: TfL.

Crossrail has just been given a £1bn bail out. This, according to the Financial TImes’s Jim Pickard, is on top of the £600m bailout in July and £300m loan in October.

That, even with the pound crashing as it is right now, is quite a lot of money. It’s bad, especially at a time when there is still seemingly not a penny available to make sure trains can actually run in the north.

But the world is quite depressing enough today, so let’s focus on something happier. On Saturday night – obviously peak time for cartographic news – Transport for London emailed me to let me know it would be updating the tube map, to show more street-level interchanges:

Connections between several pairs of stations that are near to each other, but have traditionally not been shown as interchanges, now appear on the map for the first time. These include:

  • Camden Road and Camden Town
  • Euston and Euston Square
  • Finchley Road and Finchley Road & Frognal
  • Kenton and Northwick Park
  • New Cross and New Cross Gate
  • Seven Sisters and South Tottenham
  • Swiss Cottage and South Hampstead

The stations shown meet a set of criteria that has been used to help determine which should be included. This criteria includes stations less than a 700m or a 10 minute walk apart, where there is an easy, well-lit, signposted walking route and where making the change opens up additional travel options.

The results are, well, this:

In addition, interchanges between stations have traditionally appeared on the Tube map as two solid lines, irrespective of whether they are internal or external (which means customers need to leave the station and then re-enter for the station or stop they need). This approach has now been updated and shows a clear distinction between the two types, with external interchanges now being depicted by a dashed line, linking the two stations or stops.

And lo, it came to pass:

I have slightly mixed feelings about this, in all honesty. On the positive side: I think generally showing useful street-level interchanges as A Good Thing. I’ve thought for years that Camden Road/Camden Town in particular was one worth highlighting, as it opens up a huge number of north-east travel options (Finchley to Hackney, say), and apps like CityMapper tell you to use it already.


And yet, now they’ve actually done it, I’m suddenly not sure. That interchange is pretty useful if you’re an able bodied person who doesn’t mind navigating crowds or crossing roads – but the map gives you no indication that it’s a harder interchange than, say, Wanstead Park to Forest Gate.

The new map also doesn’t tell you how far you’re going to be walking at street level. I can see the argument that a 400m walk shouldn’t disqualify something as an interchange – you can end up walking that far inside certain stations (Green Park, Bank/Monument), and the map shows them as interchanges. But the new version makes no effort to distinguish between 100m walks (West Hampstead) and 700m ones (Northwick Park-Kenton), which it probably should.

I’m also slightly baffled by some of the specific choices. Is Finchley Road-Finchley Road & Frognal really a useful interchange, when there’s an easier and more direct version, one stop up the line? No hang on West Hampstead isn’t on the Metropolitan line isn’t it? So that’s what it’s about.

Okay, a better one: if you’re switching from District to Central lines in the City, you’re generally better off alighting at Cannon Street, rather than Monument, for Bank – honestly, it’s a 90 second walk to the new entrance on Walbrook. Yet that one isn’t there. What gives?

The complete new tube map. The full version is on TfL’s website, here.

On balance, showing more possible interchanges on the map is a positive change. But it doesn’t negate the need for a fundamental rethink of how the tube map looks and what it is for. And it’s not, I fear, enough to distract from the Crossrail problem.

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and on Facebook as JonnElledgeWrites.