Where are largest cities in the world? 2015 edition

The world's biggest cities from above. Image: Getty.

The number of people who live in a city, as we may have mentioned before, is surprisingly hard to work out. That's partly because populations shift and change, unnoticed by demographers.


Mostly, though, it's because you quickly run into the fact that different authorities define their cities in entirely incompatible ways, rendering any attempt to compare them a bit like comparing apples with trucks. What you really need is a single source that follows a single set of rules: the results may not be perfect, but at least they'll be consistent.

That’s where Demographia comes in. The St. Louis-based consultancy was founded by the urban planner Wendell Cox (who, unusually for someone in that line of work, likes to write articles for conservative publications about the benefits of private car ownership). It also has a website that is, with the best will in the world, not massively easy on the eye.

But every year Demographia publishes something rather good: the World Urban Areas Report, a sort of bumper book of city population stats. You can check out the 11th edition here.

Here’s how it defines a city:

An urban area ("built-up urban area," urbanized area or urban agglomeration) is a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (metropolitan area or metropolitan region). An urban area contains no rural land... [It] is best thought of as the “urban footprint” – the lighted area that can be observed from an airplane (or satellite) on a clear night.

This year's edition of the World Urban Areas Report covers more than a thousand of the largest cities in the world, from Tokyo (pop. 37,000,000), right down to tiddlers like 850th-ranked Leicester (Pop. 534,000): all 1,009 cities, in fact, with a population of half a million of more.

Here are the top 10. See if you can spot any pattern.

 

Seeing it yet? Need a clue?

Okay, here's the same chart again. This time, we’ve coloured the cities by continent.

 

Yep.

Asia's dominance continues as you move down the league tables, too. Here's the top 20:

 

The world's largest continent, in fact, is home to 33 of the world's 50 largest cities, and 50 of the top 100. After that we got bored and stopped counting.

This isn't quite as extreme a result as it may appear: Asia, after all, is home to just shy of 60 per cent of the world's population. So the way in which the 2.1bn people who live in cities of half a million souls or more are distributed around the globe is largely a function of where people actually live. Look:

Comparing those two graphs, you can see that the Americas and Australia are unusually urbanised, Africa unusually under-urbanised, and Europe and Asia are pretty close to what you'd expect.

There are two other striking things about these league tables.

China rules

The first is the dominance of China, which takes 12 places in the top 50, and 22 of the top 100.

Again, this shouldn't be surprising – it's the world's most populous country, home to nearly a fifth of humanity – but nonetheless, it's striking how many of these megacities you almost certainly haven't heard of.

Where power lies

The other striking thing here is how far down the league tables many of the world's most powerful cities fall. Here's where some of the places that commonly make the “world city” league tables fall:

 

Size, it seems, isn't everything.

The data

Here, for completism's sake, is a chart showing the figures for all the city population charts above. You can find the full data set on Demographia's website, here.

Rank City Population
1 Tokyo-Yokohama 37,843,000
2 Jakarta 30,539,000
3 Delhi 24,998,000
4 Maniilla 24,123,000
5 Seoul-Incheon 23,480,000
6 Shanghai 23,416,000
7 Karachi 22,123,000
8 Beijing 21,009,000
9 New York 20,630,000
10 Guangzhou-Foshan 20,597,000
11 Sao Paulo 20,365,000
12 Mexico City 20,063,000
13 Mumbai 17,712,000
14 Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto 17,444,000
15 Moscow 16,170,000
16 Dhaka 15,669,000
17 Cairo 15,600,000
18 Los Angeles 15,058,000
19 Bangkok 14,998,000
20 Kolkata 14,667,000
25 Shenzhen 12,084,000
28 Tianjin 10,920,000
29 Paris 10,858,000
31 Chengdu 10,376,000
32 London 10,236,000
37 Chicago 9,156,000
41 Dongguan 8,442,000
43 Wuhan 7,509,000
45 Hangzhou 7,275,000
46 Hong Kong 7,246,000
47 Chongqing 7,217,000
50 Quanzhou 6,710,000
57 Nanjing 6,155,000
58 Shenyang 6,078,000
59 Xi'an 5,977,000
62 Qingdao 5,816,000
68 Singapore 5,624,000
72 Suzhou 5,246,000
76 Zhengzhou 4,942,000
77 Washington DC 4,889,000
79 Harbin 4,815,000
89 Boston 4,478,000
90 Xiamen 4,420,000
94 Dalian 4,183,000
97 Berlin 4,069,000
99 Fuzhou 3,962,000
101 Dubai 3,933,000
299 Amsterdam 1,624,000
832 Geneva 599,000
 
 
 
 

Barcelona’s car-free “superblocks” could extend lives. So will they catch on elsewhere?

Barcelona. Image: Getty.

The world’s biggest cities have larger populations and higher economic outputs than some countries. But as they grow in size and complexity, cities are also facing thorny challenges that threaten the health and happiness of residents. Congestion, pollution and a lack of community spaces have become major drags on people’s aspirations and experiences of urban living.

In response, cities must manage their resources and priorities to create sustainable places for visitors and residents, and foster innovation and growth. Enter Barcelona – the capital of Catalonia, in Spain – where a bold stroke of urban planning first introduced “superblocks” in 2016.

Image: ISGlobal/FAL.

Superblocks are neighbourhoods of nine blocks, where traffic is restricted to major roads around the outside, opening up entire groups of streets to pedestrians and cyclists. The aim is to reduce pollution from vehicles, and give residents much-needed relief from noise pollution. They are designed to create more open space for citizens to meet, talk and do activities.


Health and well-being boost

There are currently only six superblocks in operation, including the first, most prominent one in Eixample. Reports suggest that – despite some early push back – the change has been broadly welcomed by residents, and the long-term benefits could be considerable.

A recent study carried out by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health estimates that if, as planned, 503 potential superblocks are realised across the city, journeys by private vehicle would fall by 230,000 a week, as people switch to public transport, walking or cycling.

The research suggests this would significantly improve air quality and noise levels on the car-free streets: ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) would be reduced by a quarter, bringing levels in line with recommendations from the World Health Organisation (WHO).

The plan is also expected to generate significant health benefits for residents. The study estimates that as many as 667 premature deaths from air pollution, noise and heat could be prevented each year. More green spaces will encourage people to get outdoors and lead a more active lifestyle.

This, in turn, helps to reduce obesity and diabetes and ease pressure on health services. The researchers claim that residents of Barcelona could expect to live an extra 200 days thanks to the cumulative health benefits, if the idea is rolled out across the city.

Space to play. Imag: Mosa Moseneke/Unsplash.

There are expected to be benefits to mental health, as well as physical health. Having access to such spaces can stave off loneliness and isolation – especially among elderly residents – as communities form stronger bonds and become more resilient.

Stumbling blocks

It was Salvador Rueda, director of the Urban Ecology Agency of Barcelona, who first championed the introduction of superblocks – and he argues that the idea could be used in any city. Even so, authorities looking to expand the concept in Barcelona or beyond will need to be mindful of some concerns.

Changes like these require capital investment. Even as the car-free streets are transformed with urban furniture and greenery, the remaining major roads will likely have to accommodate heavier traffic.

Nothing comes for free. Image: Zvileve/Flickr/creative commons.

Further investments in local infrastructure – such as improving surrounding roads to deal with more traffic, or installing smart traffic management system – could be required to prevent serious congestion. Then the question remains, how to finance such investments – a higher tax rate is unlikely to be popular.


What’s more, whenever a location becomes more desirable, it leads to an increase in property demand. Higher prices and rent could create pockets of unaffordable neighbourhoods. This may lead to use of properties for investment purposes and possibly, displacement of local residents.

It’s also worth noting that Barcelona is an old and relatively well-planned European city. Different challenges exist in emerging global cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America – and in younger cities in the US and Australia. There is a great deal of variation in scale, population density, urban shape and form, development patterns and institutional frameworks across the cities. Several large cities in the developing world are heavily congested with uncontrolled, unregulated developments and weak regulatory frameworks.

Replicating what’s been done in Barcelona may prove difficult in such places, and will require much greater transformations. But it’s true that the basic principles of superblocks – that value pedestrians, cyclists and high quality public spaces over motor vehicles – can be applied in any city, with some adjustments.

Leading the way

Over the history of human civilisation, great cities have been at the forefront of innovation and social progress. But cities need a robust structure of governance, which is transparent and accountable, to ensure a fair and efficient use of resources. Imposing innovation from the top down, without consultations and buy-in, can go squarely against the idea of free market capitalism, which has been a predominant force for modern economies and can lead push-back from citizens and local businesses.

Citizens must also be willing to change their perspectives and behaviour, to make such initiatives work. This means that “solutions” to urban living like superblocks need to have buy-in from citizens, through continuous engagement with local government officials.

A man speaks at a public consultation on the Eixample superblock in Barcelona. Image: Ajuntament Barcelona/Flickr/creative commons.

Successful urban planning also needs strong leadership with a clear and consistent vision of the future, and a roadmap of how that vision can be delivered. The vision should be co-developed with the citizens and all other stakeholders such as local businesses, private and public organisations. This can ensure that everybody shares ownership and takes responsibility for the success of local initiatives.

There is little doubt that the principles and objectives of superblocks are sound. The idea has the potential to catch on around the world – though it will likely take a unique and specific form in every city.

The Conversation

Anupam Nanda, Professor of Urban Economics and Real Estate, University of Reading.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.