The places that maps forgot

Guys, I think we've forgotten something. Image: Google Maps (edited).

As anyone mistakenly left off a birthday invite list knows, it's horrible to be forgotten. And as it turns out, states and regions are just as sensitive to this kind of thing as your friend Mike, who hasn't spoken to you since you failed to add him to your "Xmas drinks 2k14" event on Facebook. 

This month, US radio station NPR was forced to apologise after it left the entire country of Israel off a map of the Middle East. Well, that's not strictly true – it labelled the area "Palestine", despite the fact that it contains both. Oops. The mistake, the graphic artist's said, was down to the "very short time" he had to complete the picture. 

This isn't the first time this has happened to Israel and it's not always so clear that it's a mistake.

Other places, as it turns out, are also susceptible to exclusion, elided from the globe altogether by some careless mapmaker. 

New Zealand was missed off a board game and a lacquered box, a popular New Zealand news site, recently catalogued the maps which forgot the country’s existence.  The main offenders included the board game Risk, which doesn’t include the country in its (to be fair, incredibly geographically inaccurate) rendering of the world:

As's caption mournfully notes: “No matter how many armies you build up in Risk, you can't invade New Zealand”. Image: Boardgamegeek. 

This Japanese tea box, created to celebrate the year of the sheep, also leaves out poor old NZ: 

Image; via

There's actually an entire website, World Maps Without New Zealand, dedicated to finding and shaming maps which fail to give the country a place. 

Wales (also, incidentally, a sheep-rearing country) was left off an EU map 

The Eurostat Statistical Compendium (a must-read, if you haven’t already) horrified fans in 2004 when its new edition missed Wales off the front cover:

Image: Eurostat via the BBC.

Michael Howard, the Welsh-born Tory leader at the time, made his displeasure clear:

"I know I've had my differences with Brussels, but I really do think that is going too far."

Plaid Cymru MEP Jill Evans, meanwhile, told the BBC that the oversight was “more than a bit annoying”. 

HarperCollins forgot Israel on purpose 

Image: HarperCollins.

An entire run of a children's atlas distribtued in the United Arab Emirates had to be pulped when it was pointed out that it left the Israel label off the map. This turned out to not be a mistake at all: HarperCollins, the publisher, felt that its inclusion would be "unacceptable" to its customers in the Gulf States. 

Google is fine with leaving bits of Africa empty 

Perhaps because of its advertising-driven model, Google doesn't seem particularly motivated to fill in the blanks in its maps of African countries. Jerry Brotton, a historian of cartography, told Think Africa Press

"It is telling that some townships in South Africa are just blank spaces on the map... Mapping is becoming privatised, not even states have the vast resources necessary to compete, and inevitably the usual problem is that Africa comes very low down on the pecking order."

Mapmakers forget entire cities all the time

A quick search of local news reports shows that it's very common for mapmakers to leave out entire cities and towns, either due to lack of space or pure human error.

One Wisconsin town, Oconomowoc Lake, was wiped off two million highway maps in the '90s thanks to a computer glitch. Its 500-odd residents weren't all that bothered, but the mistake was soon corrected by prisoners, who stuck the town back onto the maps by hand:

The Tuscaloosa News, 7 March, 1999.

Most cities and towns reacted far less passively to exclusion, with mayors writing to the Senate and locals petitioning the National Geographic society. 

And so they should: the writer of a 1941 piece from the Southeast Missourian makes a good point while discussing the exclusion of Cape Girardeau from a defence map: 

"Whether this was a studied effort to ignore Cape Girardeau or mere carelessness on the part of those who designed the drawing is beside the point. What is important is why we should give anyone an opportunity to ignore or forget us."


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How can cities become more bike friendly? The Netherlands offers useful lessons

(Aurore Belot/AFP via Getty Images)

It might seem like cycling is in the DNA of the Netherlands, a country where even the prime minister takes his bicycle to work. But the Dutch haven’t always lived as one with their bikes. In the Amsterdam of the early 1970s, cars were considered the wave of the future. They can be seen filling up squares and streets in historical photographs, and killed an average of over two Amsterdammers per week, including many children.

It is nothing more than an “accident of history” that the Netherlands embraced cycling, says Marco te Brömmelstoet, the director of the Urban Cycling Institute in Amsterdam and a man better known as the city’s cycling professor. Today’s bike rider’s paradise was created after parents and activists took to the streets to protest “child murder” by car. A Saudi oil embargo, rising gas prices, concerns about pollution and anger about the destruction of entire neighbourhoods to build motorways did the rest. 

Amsterdam, 1958. Not a cyclist's paradise. (Keystone/Getty Images)

What’s important about this history is that it can be replicated in other cities, too. Of course, the Netherlands has certain advantages – it’s flat as a pancake, for example. But in the eyes of traffic reformers, the rise of e-bikes (and even cargo bikes) means there’s no excuse for prioritising cars everywhere. 

So how can cities, flat or not, follow Amsterdam’s path to creating places where cycling is a pleasant, safe and common way to get around? The Dutch have some tips. 

Separate bikes from car traffic

Any city could start painting dedicated bike lanes on the streets. But in the Netherlands, those white marks indicating space for cyclists are considered just a minor first step. 

“A line on the road is not enough. Motorists will ignore it,” says Frans Jan van Rossem, a civil servant specialising in cycling policy in Utrecht. If other cities want their residents to choose bikes instead of cars when dodging pandemic-era public transport, protecting them from fast-moving car traffic must be the priority, Van Rossem says. 

The Dutch research institute CROW developed a widely praised design manual for bicycle infrastructure, full of tips for creating these protected lanes: A row of vertical white posts or a curb can serve as a physical separator, for example. Still, cyclists tend to feel safest in a "solitary" path, separated from the road by grass, trees, or an elevated concrete island. 

“The main bottleneck, the main reason why people don’t cycle, is that they don’t feel safe,” Van Rossem notes. “To start, construct separate paths.”

Turn those bike paths into a network

Many cities may have some bike lanes on some streets, but leave cyclists to roll the dice everywhere else. Will conditions still be safe when they turn left or right? Often they have to continue their way without any protected facilities for cyclists. 

“In many cases, cities take fast action, without thinking it through very well,” says Lucas Harms. He leads the Dutch Cycling Embassy, a partnership between the Dutch government and several companies, which promotes Dutch bike knowhow globally. “Don’t build small pieces of bike lane from nothing to nowhere. Think about a network of cycling infrastructure.” 

Utrecht aims to have cyclists within 200 to 300 metres of a connected path anywhere in the city, Van Rossem says. Avoid constructing those paths in sketchy industrial areas, he warns. “A connection through an unattractive area may be fast, but won’t be used a lot.”

Embrace the ‘fietsstraat’, a street where bikes come first

On some streets, drivers have to give up their privileges. (Rick Nederstigt/AFP via Getty Images)

A peculiar Dutch invention called "fietsstraat" (cycling street) holds strong potential for the rest of the world, Kevin Krizek says. He’s a transportation professor from Colorado who spent three years at Radboud University in Nijmegen. 

On cycling streets, cars are “guests”, restricted by a speed limit of 30 kilometres per hour. Drivers are not allowed to pass, so cyclists comfortably dominate the road. In the Netherlands the fietsstraat is usually paved with red asphalt, to resemble a bike path and notify drivers of their secondary status. But creating a cycling street can be easy. “All you need to do is put signs at intersections,” Krizek says. The effect is revolutionary in his view. Drivers have to give up their privileges, and cyclists can take the lead. 

Some Dutch traffic experts worry the cycling street won’t work if a city doesn’t also have a robust cycling culture. In the Netherlands, drivers are aware of the perils of urban cycling because they too use bicycles. Moreover, Dutch cities use sophisticated “circulation plans” to direct cars away from city centres and residential areas, onto a few main routes. 

Without “calming” traffic this way, the cycling street could be a step too far, Harms says. “In a city like New York, where all roads are equally accessible and full, it’s better to separate bicycles and cars,” he says.

Redesign intersections for cyclists' safety

If cyclists have to cross intersections “at the mercy of the Gods”, you’re not there yet, says Harms. When he travels abroad, he often finds clumsily designed crossings. As soon as cars turn, cyclists may fear for their lives. 

Harms recommends placing physical barriers between cars and bikes in places where they must cross. The Dutch build elevated islands to direct traffic into separate sections. The golden rule: cars wait behind bicycles. That way, drivers can see cyclists clearly at all times. Barriers also force Dutch cyclists to turn left in the safest way possible. They cross the street first and wait for their turn again before making their way left.

“You can create that with simple temporary measures,” Harms says. Planters work fine, for example. “They must be forgiving, though. When someone makes a mistake, you don’t want them to get seriously injured by a flower box’s sharp edge.”

Professor Krizek points out how the Dutch integrated cycling routes into roundabouts. Some are small; some are big and glorious, like the Hovenring between Eindhoven and Veldhoven, where cyclists take a futuristic-looking roundabout lifted above the highway. Most of those traffic circles move high volumes of cars and cyclists through intersections efficiently and safely. For a simpler solution, the Dutch manual suggests guiding cyclists to quieter streets – crossing a block up or down may be safer. “Nobody knows how to do intersections better than the Dutch,” says Krizek. 

Ban cars, or at least discourage them

A man rides down from a three-level bicycle parking garage near Amsterdam's main train station. (Timothy Clary/AFP via Getty Images)

The quickest, most affordable way to make a city more bikeable is to ban cars, says Ria Hilhorst, cycling policy advisor for the City of Amsterdam. It will make streets remarkably safe – and will most likely enrage a significant amount of people. 

Amsterdam doesn’t outlaw cars, but it does deliberately make their owners feel unwelcome in the historic city’s cramped streets. Paid parking is hugely effective, for example. Many car owners decide to avoid paying and use bicycles or public transportation for trips into the city. Utrecht, meanwhile, boasts the world’s largest bicycle parking garage, which provides a dizzying 12,500 parking spots.

To further discourage drivers from entering the city’s heart, Amsterdam will soon remove more than 10,000 car-parking spaces. Strategically placed barriers already make it impossible to cross Amsterdam efficiently by car. “In Amsterdam, it is faster to cross the city on a bike than by car,” Harms says. “That is the result of very conscious policy decisions.”

Communicate the benefits clearly

Shopkeepers always fear they will lose clients when their businesses won’t be directly accessible by car, but that’s a myth, says Harms. “A lot of research concludes that better access for pedestrians and cyclists, making a street more attractive, is an economic boost.”

Try replacing one parking space with a small park, he recommends, and residents will see how it improves their community. Home values will eventually rise in calmer, bike-friendlier neighbourhoods without through traffic, Van Rossem says. Fewer cars mean more room for green spaces, for example.

“I often miss the notion that cycling and walking can contribute a lot to the city. One of the greatest threats to public health is lack of exercise. A more walkable and bikeable city can be part of the solution,” says Ria Hilhorst. “But in many countries, cycling is seen as something for losers. I made it, so I have a car and I’m going to use it, is the idea. 

“Changing this requires political courage. Keep your back straight, and present a vision. What do you gain? Tranquility, fewer emissions, health benefits, traffic safety, less space occupied by vehicles.” 

Again, she points to Amsterdam’s history. “It is possible; we were a car city too.”

Karlijn van Houwelingen is a journalist based in New York City.