Only bottom up development can end the housing crisis and regenerate our cities

Could Middlesbrough be the key to urban regeneration? Image: Dr Saudade/Flickr.

How did housing become so complicated? How did it even become a crisis?

Housing used to be a basic instinct: people just did it. And it was never the domain of government. It is only in the past three generations, reaching its nadir in the 20th century command and control war economies, that governments and town halls began to feel it was their responsibility to solve the problem – a problem that had never existed before.

As civilisation evolved, we learned how to house our families and build civil society. We formed great neighbourhoods that were socially diverse and inclusive. We built millions of homes that we value today – homes built by thousands and thousands of builders.

But ever since the mid-20th century, governments have assumed the lead, building shiny new things in places where people do not want to be. “Let’s see the house is a machine for living.” “Let’s call it a garden city again.” “With cookie cutter solutions, we can build more.”  

So, why have we ended up like this? What can London learn from other cities’ approaches?

Caught between the rising graphs of urbanisation and the falling graphs of government funding and effectiveness, few city halls believe they can fully deliver on their citizens’ needs. Many governments have given up, and let the private sector solve the problem that never existed. They flog off all our publicly-owned land to the big players. They can deliver, the thinking goes, and no doubt deal with our difficult social issues as well.

We now see housing as a numbers game. But using the ideas, tools and tactics that governments have today, they are doomed to failure.

Our leaders forgot that the beauty of housing is that it can be reduced to the smallest unit of delivery: a single building, a terrace of buildings, a street of buildings. If the essential conditions are put in place to enable growth and change, many people can build.

Cities like London have become locked into “top down” notions of regeneration, dominated by City Hall and top developers. But other cities are increasingly examining “bottom up” approaches to it. Look at Brussels’ Self-Made City, or Paris’s involvement of stakeholders in redeveloping the La Corneuve district in the banlieue

The revitalisation of cities like Berlin and Hamburg has seen councils assume the mantle of facilitator; in these neighbourhoods, they have set up a framework of design principles, managing the basic infrastructure and offering smaller plots for building.

As the attractive new facades of the Hamburg waterside or Brussels Self-Made City show, all this adds up to a sustainable approach to regeneration that offers multiple building uses as the community grows. Let’s not forget the economics, either: Berlin is delivering homes up to 40 per cent cheaper than London, a record that City Hall should envy.

This “bottom up” approach does not mean a headlong plunge into self-build, although this could be part of it. We need to redefine the private sector to include all of us, not just the big guys. It means opening up the market to the widest possible opportunities, making it work equitably for the individual, the collective and the corporate.

The Middlehaven development in the North East shows a way forward. Here a brownfield site – the original heart of Middlesbrough, marginalised by the town’s later growth – is the focus of building by smaller developers and self-builder pioneers. 

The council is adapting its role from outsourcing the area’s regeneration, to become a hub or facilitator offering small plots for building. It’s setting out a design framework for new approaches to building that re-establish the fine grain of a community that will otherwise be lost.  Many town halls, despite the ravages of austerity, relish their role as enablers of the community – and they have the appetite for more of these “hands-off” development models.

People alone will always struggle to deliver housing. That is why we need more effective and inclusive government for building: not to solve the problem, but to release its potential. We need, as city planner David Crane has said, “a city of a thousand designers”. In a UK economy where a staggering 4.6m and counting are now self-employed, the instinct to self-organise in communities has never been clearer.

Everyone, it seems, knows of a city or neighbourhood regeneration they admire. But until now, no-one – councils, planners or communities  ̶  has shared the best ideas and come up with a common set of ideas and tools, to make it happen at scale. 

We need to inspire a “city of a hundred thousand builders”.  We need a city of a million small sites, and to protect and incentivise their smallness. Rather than thinking big, we need to think massive small.

Kelvin Campbell runs the Smart Urbanism social network and the Massive Small campaign. He is visiting professor at Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis at UCL, London. He also wrote CABE’s “By Design”, the basis of UK’s urban design policy for many years.

Massive Small is a new campaign to establish an online compendium of project knowledge and references, and it is raising funding via Kickstarter. You can donate here.


CityMetric is now City Monitor! Come see us at our new home

City Monitor is now live in beta at

CityMetric is now City Monitor, a name that reflects both a ramping up of our ambitions as well as our membership in a network of like-minded publications from New Statesman Media Group. Our new site is now live in beta, so please visit us there going forward. Here’s what CityMetric readers should know about this exciting transition.  

Regular CityMetric readers may have already noticed a few changes around here since the spring. CityMetric’s beloved founding editor, Jonn Elledge, has moved on to some new adventures, and a new team has formed to take the site into the future. It’s led by yours truly – I’m Sommer Mathis, the editor-in-chief of City Monitor. Hello!

My background includes having served as the founding editor of CityLab, editor-in-chief of Atlas Obscura, and editor-in-chief of DCist, a local news publication in the District of Columbia. I’ve been reporting on and writing about cities in one way or another for the past 15 years. To me, there is no more important story in the world right now than how cities are changing and adapting to an increasingly challenging global landscape. The majority of the world’s population lives in cities, and if we’re ever going to be able to tackle the most pressing issues currently facing our planet – the climate emergency, rising inequality, the Covid-19 pandemic ­­­– cities are going to have to lead the way.

That’s why City Monitor is now a global publication dedicated to the future of cities everywhere – not just in the UK (nor for that matter just in the US, where I live). Our mission is to help our readers, many of whom are in leadership positions around the globe, navigate how cities are changing and discover what’s next in the world of urban policy. We’ll do that through original reporting, expert opinion and most crucially, a data-driven approach that emphasises evidence and rigorous analysis. We want to arm local decision-makers and those they work in concert with – whether that’s elected officials, bureaucratic leaders, policy advocates, neighbourhood activists, academics and researchers, entrepreneurs, or plain-old engaged citizens – with real insights and potential answers to tough problems. Subjects we cover include transportation, infrastructure, housing, urban design, public safety, the environment, the economy, and much more.

The City Monitor team is made up of some of the most experienced urban policy journalists in the world. Our managing editor is Adam Sneed, also a CityLab alum where he served as a senior associate editor. Before that he was a technology reporter at Politico. Allison Arieff is City Monitor’s senior editor. She was previously editorial director of the urban planning and policy think tank SPUR, as well as a contributing columnist for The New York Times. Staff writer Jake Blumgart most recently covered development, housing and politics for WHYY, the local public radio station in Philadelphia. And our data reporter is Alexandra Kanik, whose previous roles include data reporting for Louisville Public Media in Kentucky and PublicSource in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Our team will continue to grow in the coming weeks, and we’ll also be collaborating closely with our editorial colleagues across New Statesman Media Group. In fact, we’re launching a whole network of new publications, covering topics such as the clean energy transition, foreign direct investment, technology, banks and more. Many of these sectors will frequently overlap with our cities coverage, and a key part of our plan is make the most of the expertise that all of these newsrooms combined will bring to bear on our journalism.

Please visit going forward, where you can also sign up for our free email newsletter.

As for CityMetric, some of its archives have already been moved over to the new website, and the rest will follow not long after. If you’re looking for a favourite piece from CityMetric’s past, for a time you’ll still be able to find it here, but before long the whole archive will move over to City Monitor.

On behalf of the City Monitor team, I’m thrilled to invite you to come along for the ride at our new digs. You can follow City Monitor on LinkedIn and on Twitter. If you’re interested in learning more about the potential for a commercial partnership with City Monitor, please get in touch with our director of partnerships, Joe Maughan.

I want to thank and congratulate Jonn Elledge on a brilliant run. Everything we do from here on out will be building on the legacy of his work, and the community that he built here at CityMetric. Cheers, Jonn!

To our readers, on behalf of the City Monitor team, thank you from all of us for being such loyal CityMetric fans. We couldn’t have done any of this without you.

Sommer Mathis is editor-in-chief of City Monitor.