How can we build skyscrapers without throwing cities into shadow?

The two concept towers (semi-transparent happy couple not included). Image: NBBJ.

There are around 250 tall towers currently planned for London's skyline. From afar, they'll probably look great. But unless they're planned carefully, they'll start throwing shadows across ever-growing swathes of London.


So one local architecture firm is offering a solution. Using computer modelling, they've figured out a design which would reduce the shadows cast by two theoretical towers by as much as 60 per cent.

The architects, from NBBJ, used computer modelling to position two curved towers in such a way that, when one blocks the sun from the public plaza below, the other reflects light back down.

Oh, and before you ask, this wouldn't be a Walke-Talkie death ray situation: the towers' shape would ensure that the sunlight doesn't focus on a single point and fry anything.

We spoke to the towers' design director, Christian Coop, who says the idea grew out of a recognition that cities will need greater density in coming years – but that it'd be great if they didn't have to sacrifice daylight at ground level to achieve it. "The key to getting tall buildings right is at the skyline level and the base," he says. The design ensures that the area between the towers is bright and pleasant, so is more likely to be used as a public space:

These diagrams show roughly how it would work: 

Factoring cosmological factors (i.e. the sun) into building design is relatively new, and so to drive the point home, NBBJ placed their concept designs in Greenwich, near the Prime Meridian. Coop says he feels the "cosmological dimension" should be a routine consideration for architects, just as sustainability or aesthetics are. 

So far the concept is still just, well, a concept, but Coop hopes that architects will use this type of modelling to see how their designs will affect the light levels around their buildings. He says the method could also be adapted to control how much sunlight is reflected at different times of year: in cities like Dubai, the design could allow less sunlight to be reflected in the hot summer months, and more in winter. 

Images: NBBJ.

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In a world of autonomous vehicles, we’ll still need walking and cycling routes

A Surrey cycle path, 1936 style. Image: Getty.

The CEO of Sustrans on the limits of technology.

We are on the cusp of dramatic changes in the way we own, use and power our means of transportation. The mobility revolution is shifting from an “if” to a “where” and when”.

There are two different futures currently being imagined. First up, a heaven, of easy mobility as portrayed by autonomous vehicle (AV) manufacturers, with shared-use AV freeing up road space for public spaces and accidents reduced to near zero. Or alternatively, a hellish, dystopian pod-world, with single-occupancy pod-armadas leading to an irresistible demand for more roads, and with people cloistered away in walkways and tunnels; Bladerunner but with added trees.

Most likely, the reality will turn out to be somewhere in between, as cities and regions across the globe shape and accommodate innovation and experimentation.

But in the understandable rush for the benefits of automation we need to start with the end in mind. What type of places do we want to live in? How do we want to relate to each other? How do we want to be?

At Sustrans we want to see a society where the way we travel creates healthier places and happier lives for everyone – because without concerted effort we are going to end up with an unequal and inequitable distribution of the benefits and disbenefits from the mobility revolution. Fundamentally this is about space and power. The age-old question of who has access to space and how. And power tends to win.  

The wealthy will use AV’s and EV’s first – they already are – and the young and upwardly mobile will embrace micro mobility. But low-income, older and disabled residents could be left in the margins with old tech, no tech and no space.

We were founded in 1977, when off the back of the oil crises a group of engineers and radical thinkers pioneered the transformation of old railway lines into paths that everyone could walk and cycle on: old tech put to the service of even older tech. Back then the petrol-powered car was the future. Over 40 years on, the 16,575-mile National Cycle Network spans the length and breadth of the UK, crossing and connecting towns, cities and countryside, with over half of the population living within two miles of its routes.


Last year, more than 800 million trips were made on the Network. That’s almost half as many journeys made on the rail network, or 12 journeys for every person in the UK. These trips benefited the UK economy by £88m through reduced road congestion and contributed £2.5bn to local economies through leisure and tourism. Walking and cycling on the Network also prevented 630 early deaths and averted nearly 8,000 serious long-term health conditions.

These benefits would be much higher if the paths on the entire Network were separated from motor traffic; currently only one third of them are. Completing an entirely traffic-free walking and cycling network won’t be simple. So why do it?

In a world of micro-mobility, AVs and other disruptive technology, is the National Cycle Network still relevant?

Yes, absolutely. This is about more than just connecting places and enabling people to travel without a car. These paths connect people to one other. In times when almost a fifth of the UK population say they are always or often lonely, these paths are a vital asset. They provide free space for everyone to move around, to be, and spend time together. It’s the kind of space that keeps our country more human and humane.

No matter how clever the technological interface between autonomous vehicles and people, we will need dedicated space for the public to move under their own power, to walk and cycle, away from vehicles. As a civil society we will need to fight for this.

And for this reason, the creation of vehicle-free space – a network of walking and cycling paths for everyone is as important, and as radical, as it was 40-years ago.

Xavier Brice is CEO of the walking and cycling charity Sustrans. He spoke at the MOVE 2019 conference last week.