An open letter to the British government: Working with mid-sized cities will solve your problems

The Hepworth Gallery, Wakefield. Image: Poliphilo/Wikimedia Commons.

Dear Prime Minister,

UK productivity growth is struggling. Social inequalities and divisions are becoming more widely entrenched. And these pressing problems are largely being put to one side because government time is, by necessity, almost exclusively occupied with the UK’s impending exit from the European Union.

National government cannot solve all the UK’s challenges alone. That is why we, as 24 mid-sized cities in the Key Cities Group, have come together to publish our latest report, Key Cities: Cities in Action. We have the drive, energy and ambition to play our part in delivering stronger economic growth and social prosperity for all corners of the UK. Our Cities in Action report sets out the additional powers, freedoms and resources that we need to make this happen.

You committed in the Industrial Strategy to move away from a one-size-fits all approach. Instead, the Industrial Strategy aims to encourage distinctive regional strengths as a means of boosting regional and national growth. In terms of delivering this commitment, working more closely with our mid-sized Key Cities offers the country a quick win.  Our collective annual GVA is £130.5bn, almost equivalent to the annual GVA of Scotland. With support to raise all Key Cities’ productivity levels to the England average, we will contribute an additional £258bn to the UK economy by 2029. This is a significant opportunity that no national government can afford to ignore.


To bring communities who feel neglected and ‘left behind’ back into the fold, you will find no better ally than mid-sized cities. Key Cities are located the length and breadth of England and Wales and home to a combined population of 6.4 million. My Key Cities colleagues and I represent the authentic voice of urban Britain. We stand ready and willing to work with national government to develop policy that helps all people and places benefit from economic growth

For us to carry out this role effectively, we in the Key Cities have three asks of national and devolved governments to underpin our new working relationship:

First, work in partnership with mid-sized cities. The Key Cities Group is a cross-party alliance of mid-sized city leaders. We are used to working across parties, sectors and other arbitrary boundaries to deliver our shared ambitions for our cities. If national government works more closely with us as partners, our cities and country will reap the rewards.

Second, trust mid-sized cities. Our cities’ compact size and scale of mid-sized cities give us as city leaders an intimate knowledge of the needs of our communities and an ability to convene relevant partners quickly to make the most of new opportunities. We therefore call on government to trust the leadership of mid-sized cities by devolving powers and budgets in full rather than just seeking to secure short-term deals.

Third, listen to mid-sized cities. We have long and proud histories of innovation and delivery. Key Cities, located across the country, make ideal testbeds to evaluate the impact of new policies and assess whether they could be rolled out to other parts of the UK. In the coming year, we intend to launch a Cities in Action programme, putting ideas and options forward to government and others to demonstrate what empowered and activist cities can do for our own residents and businesses and the wider economy and country. 

With Brexit looming ever closer on the horizon, all cities have an important part to play in bringing about economic and social prosperity. Mid-sized cities such as Key Cities cannot unleash their full potential without the support of national government. With that support, we will be the cornerstone of a thriving United Kingdom.

            Yours,

                        Peter Box

Councillor Peter Box is the Labour leader of Wakefield City council and chair of the Key Cities Group.

 
 
 
 

Wild boar are moving back to Genoa, and not everyone is pleased

A wild boar, c1933. Image: Getty.

Crossing the Ponte Gerolamo Serra in the Italian city of Genoa, I spotted a small crowd clustered by the river wall. I approached, intrigued, and peered over the wall to discover the subject of their delight: a sounder of eight wild boars – the adults sheltering from the heat in the undergrowth, while the juveniles foraged among the foliage that grows in the river bed during the dry summer months.

In any other city, such a sight might have been surprising. But in Italy, and particularly in the region of Liguria, where Genoa is located, the population of wild boars has been increasing at such a rapid rate that these incidents are now common. Across the country, it’s estimated that the population has risen from 600,000 to 1m over the past decade.

But while wild boars may look comically out of place trotting about the city, it’s actually a natural result of the way people have migrated – and the wars they have fought – over the course of recent history.

Making a comeback

A species native to Europe, the wild boar (or “cinghiale”, in Italian) largely disappeared from its historical territories during the 18th and 19th centuries. Their decline was widely attributed to the combined effects of habitat change, competition for space and resources and, of course, hunting.

Wild boars were a prized quarry, revered for their ferocity – and the danger involved in pursuing them. According to local folklore from the region of Liguria, the last truly wild boar was hunted and killed in 1814, in the province of Savona.

After an absence of more than a century, wild boar began to return to Liguria, and to the neighbouring region of Piedmont. A further influx occurred during World War I, when it’s believed that military activities in the south-east of France forced parts of the population back into Italy over the Alps.

Although hunting fraternities were quick to augment this fledgling population with wild boars transported from elsewhere, the return of the species was primarily due to natural causes. From the 1950s onwards, traditional agricultural practices were abandoned as more and more people moved from rural towns into the cities. This meant that large areas of formerly cultivated terraces and pastures were rapidly overgrown, fast becoming dense secondary woodlands.

A city gone wild

This spontaneous “rewilding” has become a controversial issue in the region. Many conservationists and environmental organisations consider the region’s return to a “wild state” a success. But others believe that the encroaching wilderness signals a loss of traditional woodland knowledge and a reduction of biodiversity, associated with the pastures and meadows.


The province of Genoa is among the areas most densely populated by wild boar in Italy, with an estimated 25 boar per 10km². Rewilding processes have brought woodlands to the city limits, blurring the boundary between rural and urban areas. The species has expanded beyond the hinterlands, colonising highly urbanised, densely populated city spaces in Genoa, drawn by the abundance of food waste created by humans.

In 2009, the infamous boar Pierino made his home at Righi, on the outskirts of Genoa, where he was routinely fed with focaccia by enthusiasts. Today, a family of wild boar call the Albergo dei Poveri – a historical hostel for the Genoese poor in the city centre – their home.

But while their antics are often recorded and shared with glee on social media, the threats posed by the presence of wild animals has become a preoccupation for the city’s municipal administration.

Boorish behaviour

Wild boar have been involved in a number of traffic accidents, and have proven to be particularly dangerous when with their young, attacking dogs and even people. The city council in Genoa has put forward many proposals to reduce the number of animals in the city, ranging from forced removals, to sterilisation, increased attention to waste disposal and approved hunts. About 90 wild boar were reportedly culled in 2018.

Needless to say, each of these measures has been hotly debated. Animal advocacy groups staunchly oppose the proposals, and sometimes obstruct the authorities’ attempts to take action, often sending patrols to care for the animals, and even give them names. But other residents are displeased with the animals’ presence in the city, and have consulted with the council on how to address the problems that they cause.

And so Genoa continues to grapple with thorny issues surrounding the presence of wild boar in the city, with the city authorities seeking to resolve a polemical issue that embroils the lives of animals and humans alike. So far, a collective, coherent and communally agreeable strategy has proven evasive; one that considers the need for public safety, hygiene and health with the ethical responsibilities towards to wild boar themselves.

Meanwhile, the animals themselves continue to lounge and forage beneath the Ponte Gerolamo Serra and elsewhere, bringing a little of the wilderness into the city.

The Conversation

Robert Hearn, Assistant Professor in Human Geography, University of Nottingham.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.