Why are Spain and Portugal so unbelievably hot right now?

Wildfires in the Algarve, Portugal, last weekend. Image: Getty.

Wildfires, drought and extreme heat have been the talk of the town and country across Europe this summer. Attention has now turned to Portugal and Spain, where temperatures at the weekend reached more than 46℃ in some parts of both countries – close to the all-time European record of 48℃, set in Greece in 1977. Records aside, the obvious question is what is causing the current Iberian heatwave and whether this might be a harbinger of the future.

A number of factors can be identified. These include unusually warm sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic, a wandering jet stream and associated “blocking” pattern of high pressure, a very dry land surface, and climate change.

The anomalous size and position of warm water areas in the North Atlantic this summer have shifted the so-called “polar front” northwards. This is the point where warm air from the south meets cold polar air, and any movement in the front will affect the distribution of high and low atmospheric pressure right across the Atlantic. This in turn influences the flow of westerly winds across the Atlantic and over Western and Southern Europe, especially the thin and fast “jet stream” in the upper atmosphere.

This summer, an area of persistent high pressure or “blocking” has become established over Western Europe and the eastern parts of the Atlantic. Such blocking causes the jet stream to appear “lazy” and wander much further north and south than its average position.

Maximum temperatures for 6 August, with large areas well into the 40s. Image: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET).

The upshot of all of this is that atmospheric blocking and a very snake-like jet stream prevents low pressure systems, and the “bad” weather they bring, from heading eastwards across Western and Southern Europe. In such a situation, the usual fluctuations between good, and not so good, summer weather are largely put on hold. Instead, as Portugal, Spain and much of Europe have experienced, clear skies, lots of heat, and very dry surface conditions become the norm.

In certain circumstances, persistent blocking can even draw in very warm air from elsewhere. This is what happened in Portugal and Spain, after intense heat caused an area of low pressure to form over Iberia. This “heat low” created the conditions for the flow of hot dry air from the Saraha Desert. Currently life in Portugal and Spain is not just in an oven, but more like a convection oven.


A warmer baseline means hotter extremes

Heatwaves in Portugal and Spain are not uncommon because this type of extreme weather is characteristic of the hot and dry summers in the Mediterranean climate region. Yet there is convincing observational evidence that heatwaves are happening more frequently across the Iberian Peninsula. Logically the question arises as to what extent the current heat is associated with climate change.

Although answering this question thoroughly would involve undertaking some well-designed climate modelling experiments, it’s safe to say that there is indeed a fair chance the current heatwave is associated with climate change. That is because heatwaves are now happening on a background of rising global temperatures so the base level of background temperature on which extremes are occurring has lifted somewhat compared to pre-industrial levels.

And what of the question on everyone’s parched lips: are the current extremes the “new norm”? The short answer is no, not right now, as extremes of over 46℃ still constitute rare events. However, analyses of the pronounced 2003 European heat wave, which affected both Portugal and Spain, indicate that the very similar extremes of August 2003 could be fairly normal by the 2040s.

The ConversationThis of course raises questions as to the habitability of places that already possess harsh summer climates. Most likely their sustainability will depend on the extent to which traditional climate adaptation strategies related to building and lifestyles can be pushed to the limit to cope with a new climate future typified by summers with temperatures in and over the mid 40s - and how flexible people and businesses might be to the idea of going elsewhere or literally underground during summer.

Glenn McGregor, Professor of Climatology, Durham University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

 
 
 
 

Everybody hates the Midlands, and other lessons from YouGov’s latest spurious polling

Dorset, which people like, for some reason. Image: Getty.

Just because you’re paranoid, the old joke runs, doesn’t mean they’re not out to get you. By the same token: just because I’m an egomaniac, doesn’t mean that YouGov isn’t commissioning polls of upwards of 50,000 people aimed at me, personally.

Seriously, that particular pollster has form for this: almost exactly a year ago, it published the results of a poll about London’s tube network that I’m about 98 per cent certain* was inspired by an argument Stephen Bush and I had been having on Twitter, at least partly on the grounds that it was the sort of thing that muggins here would almost certainly write up. 

And, I did write it up – or, to put it another way, I fell for it. So when, 364 days later, the same pollster produces not one but two polls, ranking Britain’s cities and counties respectively, it’s hard to escape the suspicion that CityMetric and YouGuv are now locked in a co-dependent and potentially abusive relationship.

But never mind that now. What do the polls tell us?

Let’s start with the counties

Everybody loves the West Country

YouGov invited 42,000 people to tell it whether or not they liked England’s 47 ceremonial counties for some reason. The top five, which got good reviews from between 86 and 92 per cent of respondents, were, in order: Dorset, Devon, Cornwall, North Yorkshire and Somerset. That’s England’s four most south westerly counties. And North Yorkshire.

So: almost everyone likes the South West, though whether this is because they associate it with summer holidays or cider or what, the data doesn’t say. Perhaps, given the inclusion of North Yorkshire, people just like countryside. That would seem to be supported by the fact that...


Nobody really likes the metropolitan counties

Greater London was stitched together in 1965. Nine years later, more new counties were created to cover the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Liverpool (Merseyside), Birmingham (the West Midlands), Newcastle (Tyne&Wear), Leeds (West Yorkshire and Sheffield (South Yorkshire). Actually, there were also new counties covering Teesside (Cleveland) and Bristol/Bath (Avon), too, but those have since been scrapped, so let’s ignore them.

Not all of those seven counties still exist in any meaningful governmental sense – but they’re still there for ’ceremonial purposes’, whatever that means. And we now know, thanks to this poll, that – to the first approximation – nobody much likes any of them. The only one to make it into the top half of the ranking is West Yorkshire, which comes 12th (75 per cent approval); South Yorkshire (66 per cent) is next, at 27th. Both of those, it may be significant, have the name of a historic county in their name.

The ones without an ancient identity to fall back on are all clustered near the bottom. Tyne & Wear is 30th out of 47 (64 per cent), Greater London 38th (58 per cent), Merseyside 41st (55 per cent), Greater Manchester 42nd (53 per cent)... Not even half of people like the West Midlands (49 per cent, placing it 44th out of 47). Although it seems to suffer also from the fact that...

Everybody hates the Midlands

Honestly, look at that map:

 

Click to expand.

The three bottom rated counties, are all Midlands ones: Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire – which, hilariously, with just 40 per cent approval, is a full seven points behind its nearest rival, the single biggest drop on the entire table.

What the hell did Bedfordshire ever do to you, England? Honestly, it makes Essex’s 50 per cent approval rate look pretty cheery.

While we’re talking about irrational differences:

There’s trouble brewing in Sussex

West Sussex ranks 21st, with a 71 per cent approval rating. But East Sussex is 29th, at just 65 per cent.

Honestly, what the fuck? Does the existence of Brighton piss people off that much?

Actually, we know it doesn’t because thanks to YouGov we have polling.

No, Brighton does not piss people off that much

Click to expand.

A respectable 18th out of 57, with a 74 per cent approval rating. I guess it could be dragged up by how much everyone loves Hove, but it doesn’t seem that likely.

London is surprisingly popular

Considering how much of the national debate on these things is dedicated to slagging off the capital – and who can blame people, really, given the state of British politics – I’m a bit surprised that London is not only in the top half but the top third. It ranks 22nd, with an approval rating of 73 per cent, higher than any other major city except Edinburgh.

But what people really want is somewhere pretty with a castle or cathedral

Honestly, look at the top 10:

City % who like the city Rank
York 92% 1
Bath 89% 2
Edinburgh 88% 3
Chester 83% 4
Durham 81% 5
Salisbury 80% 6
Truro 80% 7
Canterbury 79% 8
Wells 79% 9
Cambridge 78% 10

These people don’t want cities, they want Christmas cards.

No really, everyone hates the Midlands

Birmingham is the worst-rated big city, coming 47th with an approval rating of just 40 per cent. Leicester, Coventry and Wolverhampton fare even worse.

What did the Midlands ever do to you, Britain?

The least popular city is Bradford, which shows that people are awful

An approval rating of just 23 per cent. Given that Bradford is lovely, and has the best curries in Britain, I’m going to assume that

a) a lot of people haven’t been there, and

b) a lot of people have dodgy views on race relations.

Official city status is stupid

This isn’t something I learned from the polls exactly, but... Ripon? Ely? St David’s? Wells? These aren’t cities, they’re villages with ideas above their station.

By the same token, some places that very obviously should be cities are nowhere to be seen. Reading and Huddersfield are conspicuous by their absence. Middlesbrough and Teesside are nowhere to be seen.

I’ve ranted about this before – honestly, I don’t care if it’s how the queen likes it, it’s stupid. But what really bugs me is that YouGov haven’t even ranked all the official cities. Where’s Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, which attained the dignity of official city status in 2012? Or Perth, which managed at the same time? Or St Asaph, a Welsh village of 3,355 people? Did St Asaph mean nothing to you, YouGov?

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and on Facebook as JonnElledgeWrites.

Want more of this stuff? Follow CityMetric on Twitter or Facebook.

*A YouGov employee I met in a pub later confirmed this, and I make a point of always believing things that people tell me in pubs.