How long is the coast of Great Britain? It depends how you measure it

How much of this is there? Cornwall enjoying the sun. Image: Getty.

This is a bit of a long read, so if you really want to know the answer to the question in the title of this post, it's very simple: it depends on how you measure it.

You could say that the coastline of the island of Great Britain is infinitely long. But this doesn't really help anyone who wants to walk or kayak or swim round this island, so I'll attempt to answer the question here.

Take a look at the image below and you'll see that I've calculated the distance of the coastline round the island of Great Britain as 11,023 miles. 

Quite a lot of coastline for a small island.

But hold on a minute. When I calculated it again, I got an answer of 3,876 miles, as you can see below. What's going on here?

Well, the first image is an extremely detailed digitised representation of the coastline of Great Britain and surrounding islands (bearing in mind “detailed” is a relative concept). This first map is represented by 2,282,000 individual vertices which create the polygons you see in the image above. 

In the second map, only 0.1 per cent of these vertices are retained, so the geographical features you see below are represented by 2,282 individual vertices. You can't see much different between the two at the scale you view them at here – but if you were trying to navigate your way into a harbour or sea loch on the west coast of Scotland, for example, it would make a big difference.

Click the first image to enlarge it and then compare it to the next one and you will see some differences, but nothing too drastic.

The coastline length is a function of how you measure it.

At this point, you might be thinking “hasn't this got something to do with fractals and Benoit Mandelbrot?” – and you'd be right. He wrote a very famous paper in Science in 1967 on exactly this topic, entitled “How long is the coast of Britain”. The answer is that there really is no definitive answer: it's all about how you measure it.The coastline length is a function of how you measure it.

But let's say you want to swim or kayak around the coastline of Great Britain and nearby islands. How far would you have to travel? I tried to calculate this based on a 1km distance from the shoreline, and concluded that it could be done by covering fewer than 2,000 miles – even though the coastline seems to be a lot longer. After all, you wouldn't want to go in and out of every little cove and estuary.

Be my guest.

I created a little gif based on different ways of measuring the British coastline, starting off with a file that included 100 per cent of the vertices from my original Ordnance Survey map layer (I’ve explained the methodology in a note at the bottom of this artcile). I then created files with fewer and fewer vertices retained, all the way down to a nonsensical shape which retained hardly any of the original points.

This is what I got, at 2 seconds per frame. (Note the “percentage of vertices retained” figure in each image.)

Coastline length at different measurement scales.

It's a bit difficult to see the difference between some of these images at this scale, so I also zoomed in to the west coast of Scotland to produce another little animation.

This time, you can really see more of the difference between the layers I produced. The figures on the graphics indicate what percentage of the original vertices were retained in each case. Below this, I’ve also provided a still image with different versions of the coast overlaid on top of each other, just to demonstrate the impact of reducing the number of vertices on the representation of the coastline – and hence, its length.

This shows Morar, Mallaig and Loch Nevis.

 

Each line represents a different level of generalisation.

I then decided to take a smaller island and extract the individual vertices (also known as nodes) that make up the shapes you see in the maps above. For this, I chose the Isle of Skye because it's one of the biggest British islands, and the coast is highly irregular and indented.

Using the version of the original shapefile where I retained 1 per cent of the original vertices, Skye is represented by 772 individual nodes joined together to make a single polygon, as you can see below.

This produces a pretty good approximation of the coastline of Skye for most purposes. At this resolution, the coastline of Skye comes in at 330 miles (530km), compared to 456 miles (733km) at the original resolution.

But of course, we need to remember that if we had digitised around every single rock around the coastline, the length would be nearly infinite. If you measured the coastline with a matchstick, for example, you'll get an extremely high value (and a sore back).

Skye represented with a polygon comprised of 772 vertices.

Here's what this looks like when you show them one by one, in an animated gif – just to give you an idea of how it is plotted spatially. This one shown at 15ms per frame, so the dot fairly zooms around the coastline.

All of this also gives you a little insight into how a geographical information system (GIS) deals with geometry and what goes into the shapes that you see on your screen. It also helps explain why the very detailed, highly accurate spatial data files we can download from Ordnance Survey aren't always the most appropriate ones to use in small scale mapping.

Or, maybe I just wanted to make another geogif. But either way I think I learned something.

A dot going round the Isle of Skye at 99,000 mph (forever).

So, how long is the coastline of Great Britain? Well, if you want to swim or kayak around all islands then you should think about training for a distance of around 2,000 miles. If you want to walk the coastline of Great Britain, then it's most likely going to be a bit more, or maybe a bit less (that depends upon how you plan your route).

Despite all the uncertainty, however, I think we can all agree that you'll need to go more than 1,024 miles.

Yes, this is Britain (kind of).

Last of all, I also did a little gif showing the 174 vertices of Great Britain when the file is massively reduced – so I'll end with this.

Another one, just for fun.

Dr Alasdair Rae is a senior lecturer in the geography department of the University of Sheffield. 

This article was originally posted on his blog, and is reposted here with the author's permission.

 


Some notes on methodology: I used the OS OpenData Boundary Line product for the coastline. This was a polyline file, so I converted it to a polygon, and then generalised it several times using the Visvalingam algorithm in mapshaper. Contains OS data © Crown copyright and database right 2015.

You'll see if you search online that my measurements are close to those of others – so I'm at least as right or wrong as some people. If you're interested, you might want to look up the coastline paradox as well and, of course, Lewis Fry Richardson.

What are the other big British islands? After the island of Great Britain, it's Lewis and Harris at 741 miles of coastline (1,193km), the mainland of Shetland at 692 miles (1,113km), Skye at 456 miles (733km) and North Uist at 334 miles (537km).

Remember that this refers to coastline length and not land area.

All images in this post courtesy of the author.

 
 
 
 

To beat rising temperatures, Vienna launches a network of 'Cool Streets'

A Vienna resident cools off at one of the city's new Cool Streets installations. (Courtesy Christian Fürthner/Mobilitätsagentur Wien)

Over the past several months, Austria has recorded its highest unemployment rate since World War II, thanks to the economic aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic. With no job or a suddenly smaller income – not to mention the continued threat of the virus – many Viennese will opt for a staycation this summer.  

At the same time, last year, Austria’s capital experienced 39 days with temperatures of over 30°C (86°F), one of its hottest summers in history according to the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics.

Climate experts expect a similarly sizzling 2020 season, and city officials are now doubling down on efforts to combat the heat by launching a “Cool Streets” initiative as well as a new, state-of-the-art cooling park.

“As the city councilwoman in charge of climate, it is my job to ensure local cooling,” Vienna’s deputy mayor Birgit Hebein proclaimed at the opening of one of 22 new “Cool Streets” on 22 June.

“In Austria, there are already more heat deaths than traffic fatalities,” she added.

Hebein was referring to the 766 people the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Security included in its 2018 heat-associated mortality statistics. The number was up by 31% compared to 2017, and in contrast to the 409 people who died in traffic collisions the same year.

The project includes 18 temporary Cool Streets located across the city, plus four roads that will be redesigned permanently and designated as “Cool Streets Plus”.

“The Plus version includes the planting of trees. Brighter surfaces, which reflect less heat, replace asphalt in addition to the installation of shadow or water elements,” said Kathrin Ivancsits, spokeswoman for the city-owned bureau Mobilitätsagentur, which is coordinating the project.


Vienna's seasonal Cool Streets provide shady places to rest and are closed to cars. (Petra Loho for CityMetric)

In addition to mobile shade dispensers and seating possibilities amid more greenery provided by potted plants, each street features a steel column offering drinking water and spray cooling. The temporary Cool Streets will also remain car-free until 20 September.

A sensor in the granite base releases drinking water and pushes it through 34 nozzles whenever the outside temperature reaches 25°C (77°F) . As soon as the ambient temperature drops to 23°C (73°F), the sensor, which operates from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m., turns off the water supply.

The sensors were included in part to allay concerns about legionella, a pathogenic bacteria that can reproduce in water.  

“When the spray stops, the system drains, and therefore no microbial contamination can develop,” said Dr. Hans-Peter Hutter, deputy head of the Department of Environmental Health at the Center for Public Health at Medical University Vienna, in a televised interview.

Hutter also assured the public that there is no increased risk of a Covid-19 infection from the spray as long as people adhere to the one-meter social distance requirement.


But Samer Bagaeen of the University of Kent's School of Architecture and Planning notes that air cooling systems, like the ones used in Germany at abattoirs, have been found recently to be a risk factor for Covid-19 outbreaks.

“The same could be said for spay devices,” he warned.

Vienna’s district councils selected the 22 Cool Street locations with the help of the city’s Urban Heat Vulnerability Index. The map shows where most people suffer from heat by evaluating temperature data, green and water-related infrastructure, and demographic data.

“Urban heat islands can occur when cities replace the natural land cover with dense concentrations of pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that absorb and retain heat,” as the US Environmental Protection Agency states.


A rendering of Vienna's planned park featuring a Coolspot, which is scheduled to open in August. Click to expand.
(Courtesy Carla Lo Landscape Architecture)

Vienna’s sixth district, Mariahilf, is such an area. The construction of the capital’s first “Cooling Park”, a €1 million project covering the 10,600 square-metre Esterházypark, is designed to provide relief. 

Green4Cities, a centre of excellence for green infrastructure in urban areas, designed the park’s main attraction, the “Coolspot”. The nearly 3.40-metre high steel trellis holds three rings equipped with spray nozzles. Textile shading slats, tensioned with steel cables, cover them.

The effects of evaporation and evapotranspiration create a cooler microclimate around the 30 square-metre seating area, alongside other spray spots selectively scattered across the park.

The high-pressure spray also deposits tiny droplets on plant and tree leaves, which stimulates them to sweat even more. All together, these collective measures help to cool their surroundings by up to six degrees.

The landscape architect Carla Lo and her team planned what she calls the “low-tech” park components. “Plants are an essential design element of the Cooling Park,” Lo says. “By unsealing the [soil], we can add new grass, herbaceous beds, and more climate-resistant trees to the existing cultivation”.

Light-coloured, natural stone punctuated by grass seams replaces the old concrete surfaces, and wooden benches meander throughout the park.

Living near the park and yearning for an urban escape close by, Lo says she’s motivated to ensure the park is completed by mid-August.

“If we don't do anything, Vienna will be another eight degrees Celsius hotter in 2050 than it already is,” Hebein said.

Vienna recently came in first in the World's 10 Greenest Cities Index by the consulting agency Resonance.

“There is no one size fits all on how cities respond to urban heat,” says the University of Kent’s Bagaeen, who points out that Vienna was one of the first European cities to set up an Urban Heat Islands Strategic Plan in 2015.

In the short term, prognoses on the city’s future development may be more difficult: Vienna votes this autumn.

Petra Loho is a journalist and photographer based in Austria.