Here’s CityMetric’s summer reading list

A book! On a beach! Who'd have guessed that'd be the title illustration for this piece? Image: Usestangerines via Flickr

It's been a largely wet, dreary summer here in London, and if you're sensible you'll have booked yourself a sweet escape to some sunnier clime – be it Cornwall or Santorini. No doubt that trip will involve lounging by the pool (or the secluded Cornish cove) for hours on end, reading a book and sipping some beverage or other. 

But what to read? Contemporary fiction is exhausting and overrated, you've covered the classics already, and there's no point reading political books as everything's changed too much by the time you get to chapter two, anyway. 

Fear not: here's a collection of the best summer reads for fans of urbanism, infrastucture, cities, public transport, and all such good things. 

A Walk In The Park: The Life and Times of a People's Institution, Travis Elborough

What good is a city with no breathing space? From the historic (and etymological) origins of parks in manorial Norman Britain to the foundations of royal forests and the formalisation of public parks in the 18th and 19th centuries, this book covers the full story of the lowly but vital park. And if you can't live without a political diatribe in your tome of choice, the afterword is full of the predictable rampages against austerity, Donald Trump, and privatisation. 

Mmm, green. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Historical, green, everyone loves a good park.

Cons: Touches of soapbox, tangetial at times, dangerous whiffs of NIMBYism. 

Fun tidbit: Charles II grew rather fond and jealous of Versailles during his exile on the Continent and shoved a Versailles-style avenue of trees in St Jamess Park, along with a long, fenced court for playing a game called Pelle Melle. This game inspired the names of Pall Mall and The Mall, in the area. 

Walking in Berlin: A Flaneur in the Capital, Franz Hessel (translated by Amanda DeMarco)

1920s Berlin. Christopher Isherwoods playground, the Weimar Germany of culture, glamour, cultish art-films like Metropolis, and the faint but definite smell of Nazism – the full package is laid in this deliciously colourful, cosmopolitan book. With essays divided into geographical chunks, you can tackle the book in daily doses – if youre one its adoring followers – or peruse it in bitesize chunks from afar if youre not. Its more than just a travel guide, though.

Its got definite touches of novel and confessional to it, too, which make it all the more enjoyable, if a little outlandish. 

Comes with groovy cover imagery. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Look intelligent, Berlin is fabulous, historical chic. 

Cons: At times pretentious, lots of Hessels spots dont exist anymore, not that fun to read if you're not in or into Berlin. 

Quote to fire at ex-London-hipster Berlin emigrés: Theres really no reason to visit Neukölln for its own sake.

Night Trains: The Rise And Fall Of The Sleeper, Andrew Martin

Trains! Finally. For true train fans, the night train has a particularly seductive mystique. The son of a British Rail employee, Andrew Martin chronicles the long historical arc of the European night train via todays Eurostar, the chat-up venue of the Blue Trains bar car in the 1950s, the Orient Express, and Agatha Christie herself. It's an attempt to relive the glory days of these great locomotives – as much cultural landmarks as mere timetabled services – through their modern counterparts.

Obviously, this is equal parts nostalgia, appreciation of modernity, and grumpish growling, but Martin has great insight, and knows an awful lot about trains. 

A seductive billow of smoke. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Trains, fuzzy European feelings, chic mid-century vibes.

Cons: May elicit sad European feelings, not enough pictures, can feel too much like youre reading about someone else having fun on trains youd like to be on.

Enjoyable moment: A visit to Hell Station, just around the corner from Trondheim Airport in Norway. 

Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination, Adam Lashinsky

Uber is the tech worlds (and the urbanism worlds) marmite, so if you're going to love or hate something so passionately, you might as well try to get clued up on its history. Lashinsky plots the rise of Uber, and its seemingly inevitable global takeover, through exclusive interviews with Uber's founder and ex-CEO, Travis Kalanick, and other bits and bobs along the way. 

Nothing like the sweet smell of allegations of misogyny and exploitation to get you up in the morning. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Important subject matter, lengthy and exclusive interviews, not too long.

Cons: A little glorifying at times, history may not be kind to this book, things around Uber are moving a little too quickly. 


Cringe-inducing closing line: Adversity, after all, had become part of the journey. 

The New Urban Crisis: Gentrification, Housing Bubbles, Growing Inequality, and What We Can Do About It, Richard Florida

Though written from an American perspective for a US audience, this book clearly has vast significance on our side of the pond – and Florida write an appropriately-sized preface to the UK edition that claims London is, in fact, the epicentre of what I have come to term the New Urban Crisis. There are graphs, charts, and maps galore, and a healthy dose of case studies in specific cities and neighbourhoods alongside more generalising pictures based heavily in facts and studies.

The book closes with a manifesto of sorts, firing of a series of guiding principles for policy makers that are reasonably hard to disagree with: make clustering work for us and not against us, invest in the infrasturcture for density and growth, build more affordable rental housing, turn low-wage service jobs into middle-class work, tackle poverty by investing in people and places, lead a global effort to build prosperous cities, empower cities and communities. The usual sort of stuff. 

BIG WORDS little words, Shard on the side. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Comes endorsed by Michael Bloomberg, hits all the big issues, good basing in facts and pleasing charts. 

Cons: Can veer towards tub-thumping, very American-focussed.

Best map: London's neighbourhoods broken down geographically into primarily creative class, primarily service class, and primarily working class, produce by the Martin Prosperity Institute using Office for National Statistics data. 

Brutal London, Simon Phipps

A classic. Though detractors would call it a coffee table book, at best, its just as fun to take a slice of Londons Brutalist corners with you to the beaches of the Algarve. Beautiful black-and-white photography throughout pairs with sparing touches of text at the front and back of the book to please both lookers and readers.

Brutalist works are divided by London Borough, and each section comes with a handy map so you can easily locate your nearest local slice of Brutalist goodness if you fancy an excursion. If you hate Brutalism, look away now. 

Calm down, Brutalism fanatics. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Beautiful Brutalism, great photography, good for sun-tired eyes as there aren't that many words 

Cons: Horrible Brutalism, barely any words, the black-and-white effect can get a little monotonous after your 37th hi-rise. 

Fun tidbit: Thamesmeads Southmere Lake – which Stanley KubrickA Clockwork Orange uses in a particularly gruesome scene to violently dunk the droogs underwater  was originally intended to mirror the calming effect of water in Swedish housing developments. 

Seeking New York: The Stories Behind The Historic Architecture Of Manhattan – One Building At A Time, Tom Miller

The texture and detail of the contents page tells you that this is going to be an enjoyable read. A colour-coded map divides the island of Manhattan up into sections, each with four or so choice architectural intrigues, on a pleasingly small scale. Think Sugar Hill and Bowery, rather than just a vague North of Harlem or Downtown.

The book is full of beautiful sketches of buildings alongside quality colour pictures of sites as they are today, occasionally alongisde historical shots of the buildings or their developers or early owners. Miller goes into great detail with each building he chooses, but manages never to bore.

Whether its witty extractions from the New York Times of the day, or extracts from historical documents pertaining to the original owner or developer of a particular site, he gets behind the archiectural conversation into the personal historical level that makes this more than just an archi-wonks pastime. 

As much an encyclopedia as anything else. Image: Amazon.

Pros: Beautifully laid out, attention to detail, wide range of sources. 

Cons: Several key buildings aren't discussed, and some of the contemporary photography is disappointing. 

Fun tidbit: The death of 14-year-old John McTaggart on February 6, 1903, was blamed on the newly erected Flatiron Building due to the bizarre wind currents its unusual shape occasionally whipped up. The messenger boy was attempting to round the 23rd street point of the building against the wind, Miller writes. After attempting three times, he was reportedly blown into Fifth Avenue and fatally injured by an automobile.” 

Got any others? Tweet us. 

Jack May is a regular contributor to CityMetric and tweets as @JackO_May.

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Here’s how we plant 2 billion more trees in the UK

A tree in Northallerton, North Yorkshire. Image: Getty.

The UK’s official climate advisor, the Committee on Climate Change (CCC), recently published a report outlining how to reduce the 12 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions that come from land use by two thirds by 2050. Alongside recommending cutting meat and dairy consumption by 20 per cent, the report calls for the annual creation of up to 50,000 hectares of broadleaf and conifer woodland for the next three decades. This would increase forest cover from 13 per cent to at least 17 per cent – a level not seen in Britain since before the Norman invasion.

Reforestation at that rate would mean creating roughly the area of the city of Leeds every year for the next three decades. At typical stocking densities of 1,500 stems per hectare, the ambition is to establish some 2.25 billion additional trees. Given that the UK, as with most of Europe, is in the grip of ash dieback, a disease likely to prove fatal for many millions of native ash trees, the scale of the challenge is massive.

On a crowded and intensively farmed island like Britain, unlocking a million and a half hectares of land will be no mean feat. But it’s not impossible – and is an unprecedented opportunity not only to tackle the climate crisis but also the biodiversity crisis that is every bit as detrimental to our wellbeing.

Trees and farms

One million and a half hectares is just 6 per cent of the mainland UK’s land area. To give some sense of perspective on this, 696,000 hectares of “temporary grassland” were registered in 2019. So if land supply is not the problem, what is? Often it’s cultural inertia. Farmers are firmly rooted to the land and perhaps understandably reluctant to stop producing food and instead become foresters. But the choice need not be so binary.

The intensification of agriculture has caused catastrophic declines in many species throughout the UK by reducing vast wooded areas and thousands of miles of hedgerows to small pockets of vegetation, isolating populations and making them more vulnerable to extinction.

Integrating trees with the farmed landscape delivers multiple benefits for farms and the environment. Reforestation doesn’t have to mean a return to the ecologically and culturally inappropriate single-species blocks of non-native conifers, which were planted en masse in the 1970s and 1980s. Incentivised under tax breaks to secure a domestic timber supply, many of the resulting plantations were located in places difficult or in some cases impossible to actually harvest.

Productive farmland needn’t be converted to woodland. Instead, that 4 per cent of land could be found by scattering trees more widely. After all, more trees on farmland is good for business. They prevent soil erosion and the run-off of pollutants, provide shade and shelter for livestock, a useful source of renewable fuel and year-round forage for pollinating insects.

The first tranche of tree planting could involve new hedgerows full of large trees, preferably with wide headlands of permanently untilled soils, providing further wildlife refuge.


Natural regeneration

Where appropriate, new woody habitats can be created simply by stopping how the land is currently used, such as by removing livestock. This process can be helped by scattering seeds in areas where seed sources are low. But patience is a virtue. If people can learn to tolerate less clipped and manicured landscapes, nature can run its own course.

A focus on deliberate tree planting also raises uncomfortable truths. Most trees are planted with an accompanying stake to keep them upright and a plastic shelter that protects the sapling from grazing damage. All too often, these shelters aren’t retrieved. Left to the elements, they break down into ever smaller pieces, and can be swept into rivers and eventually the ocean, where they threaten marine wildlife. Two billion tree shelters is a lot of plastic.

The main reason for using tree shelters at all is because the deer population in the UK is so high that in many places, it is all but impossible to establish new trees. This also has serious implications for existing woodland, which is prevented from naturally regenerating. In time, these trees will age and die, threatening the loss of the woodland itself. Climate change, pests and pathogens and the lack of a coordinated, centrally supported approach to deer management means the outlook for the UK’s existing treescape is uncertain at best.

An ecologically joined-up solution would be to reintroduce the natural predators of deer, such as lynx, wolves, and bears. Whether rewilding should get that far in the UK is still the subject of debate. Before that, perhaps the focus should be on providing the necessary habitat, rich in native trees.

A positive response would be to implement the balanced recommendations, made almost a decade ago in a government review, of creating more new habitat, improving what’s already there, and finding ways to link it together. Bigger, better, and more connected habitats.

But the UK is losing trees at increasing rates and not just through diseases. The recent removal of Victorian-era street trees in Sheffield and many other towns and cities is another issue to contend with. As the climate warms, increasing urban temperatures will mean cities need shade from street trees more than ever.

Trees aren’t the environmental panacea that the politicians might have people believe – even if they do make for great photo opportunities – but we do need more of them. Efforts to expand tree cover are underway across the world and the UK will benefit from contributing its share. Hitting the right balance – some commercial forestry, lots of new native woodland and millions of scattered trees – will be key to maximising the benefits they bring.

Nick Atkinson, Senior Lecturer in Ecology & Conservation, Nottingham Trent University.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.