Coal power is dirty – but abandoned mines could help create a clean energy future

Pushing on into a bright future: the Old Meadows Coal Mine, Bacup, Lancashire, 1936. Image: Hulton Archive/Getty.

Energy from coal is now being linked to global warming and pollution on a global level. In fact, it has been estimated that coal contributes to 25 per cent of green house gases.

Coal use has caused severe negative environmental impacts, from its mining and processing, to its transportation and combustion, leading to high levels of pollution. In October 2017, a United Nations weather agency report indicated that levels of carbon dioxide surged at “record-breaking speed” compared to 2016.

Around the world, coal mining contributed historically to the industrial revolution and played an important part in the development of modern society. But many mines have since been closed in the UK and Europe. In the UK, this led to hard financial times and unemployment in many communities, including the miners’ strikes of the 1970s and 1980s, an impact recorded in the 1996 movie Brassed Off.

But what happens inside the coalmines after their closure? Surprisingly, most disused coalmines start producing methane – known as Coal Mine Methane (CMM) – which can be a clean source of energy. It can be used to generate electricity via gas engines or, with some technical processing, be fed into the gas grid. Over time, however, the mines will begin to fill with water and the methane will almost entirely disappear.

Water, water everywhere

But this will create yet another opportunity. The UK’s historic coal mines have an approximate residual void space of a billion cubic metres. When flooded, that’s the equivalent of 400,000 Olympic swimming pools of water at a stable temperature. This vast volume of water can be used for efficient heating and cooling applications and reduce carbon emissions.

But how? A recent publication by the team at Nottingham Trent University explains. The water in the coalmines is generally at a stable temperature – normally between 12C and 20C depending on the location – which makes it perfect for warming, or cooling, buildings or industrial processes.

We developed and tested a new technology for several years using two systems, one at Markham Vale and one at the National Coal Mining Museum for England, and found it can use this water to provide green, sustainable energy to homes and businesses in the UK.


Opportunities and challenges

The technology, which is based on using water source heat pumps, is simple and straightforward and works along similar lines to a refrigerator or air-conditioning system. It produces no noise or local air pollution and is also three or four times more efficient than a standard electric heater or gas boiler.

To understand how heat pumps in general work, consider the refrigerator in your kitchen. This extracts the heat from the food and drinks inside it, and diverts it into the surrounding environment via a condenser (which is simply a radiator) on the fridge’s exterior. Our technology employs a similar system. In this case, we extract the heat from the coalmine water and use it to warm buildings.

In the UK, coal mining technology programmes already pump nearly 112m megalitres of water for environmental reasons, such as avoiding the pollution of drinking water, springs and rivers. The new technology could use this water, which is being pumped anyway, potentially generating 63 megawatts of heat per year.

But the technology has its own challenges, specifically a lack of investment and “champion” organisations to lead the process. In part, this is because it remains a little-known or understood technology by many investors.

There is also a lack of a clear model to follow in the UK when implementing new technologies such as this, not just commercially, but contractually and legally as well. Most housing developers in the UK and Europe, for example, prefer to rely on well-established technologies such as gas boilers or electric heaters, even in areas where coalmines are available. If such new, green technologies are to succeed, comprehensive strategies are needed to get developers – and the general public – on board.

Hot topic

On the positive side, the technology can be integrated with other heating technologies, and in many cases existing building infrastructure can be used to implement it. The technology can also reduce carbon emissions and energy use and support compliance with the EU Energy Efficiency Directive and UK ESOS regulations.

We also have excellent, large-scale case studies, showing how effective it can be. In Asturias, north-west Spain, for example, a hospital and a university building are already being heated using coalmine water.

The ConversationOur research shows this technology could give the world’s disused coal mines a new, green, lease of life. What a fitting legacy for the industry that would be.

Amin Al-Habaibeh, Professor of Intelligent Engineering Systems, Nottingham Trent University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

 
 
 
 

Everybody hates the Midlands, and other lessons from YouGov’s latest spurious polling

Dorset, which people like, for some reason. Image: Getty.

Just because you’re paranoid, the old joke runs, doesn’t mean they’re not out to get you. By the same token: just because I’m an egomaniac, doesn’t mean that YouGov isn’t commissioning polls of upwards of 50,000 people aimed at me, personally.

Seriously, that particular pollster has form for this: almost exactly a year ago, it published the results of a poll about London’s tube network that I’m about 98 per cent certain* was inspired by an argument Stephen Bush and I had been having on Twitter, at least partly on the grounds that it was the sort of thing that muggins here would almost certainly write up. 

And, I did write it up – or, to put it another way, I fell for it. So when, 364 days later, the same pollster produces not one but two polls, ranking Britain’s cities and counties respectively, it’s hard to escape the suspicion that CityMetric and YouGuv are now locked in a co-dependent and potentially abusive relationship.

But never mind that now. What do the polls tell us?

Let’s start with the counties

Everybody loves the West Country

YouGov invited 42,000 people to tell it whether or not they liked England’s 47 ceremonial counties for some reason. The top five, which got good reviews from between 86 and 92 per cent of respondents, were, in order: Dorset, Devon, Cornwall, North Yorkshire and Somerset. That’s England’s four most south westerly counties. And North Yorkshire.

So: almost everyone likes the South West, though whether this is because they associate it with summer holidays or cider or what, the data doesn’t say. Perhaps, given the inclusion of North Yorkshire, people just like countryside. That would seem to be supported by the fact that...


Nobody really likes the metropolitan counties

Greater London was stitched together in 1965. Nine years later, more new counties were created to cover the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Liverpool (Merseyside), Birmingham (the West Midlands), Newcastle (Tyne&Wear), Leeds (West Yorkshire and Sheffield (South Yorkshire). Actually, there were also new counties covering Teesside (Cleveland) and Bristol/Bath (Avon), too, but those have since been scrapped, so let’s ignore them.

Not all of those seven counties still exist in any meaningful governmental sense – but they’re still there for ’ceremonial purposes’, whatever that means. And we now know, thanks to this poll, that – to the first approximation – nobody much likes any of them. The only one to make it into the top half of the ranking is West Yorkshire, which comes 12th (75 per cent approval); South Yorkshire (66 per cent) is next, at 27th. Both of those, it may be significant, have the name of a historic county in their name.

The ones without an ancient identity to fall back on are all clustered near the bottom. Tyne & Wear is 30th out of 47 (64 per cent), Greater London 38th (58 per cent), Merseyside 41st (55 per cent), Greater Manchester 42nd (53 per cent)... Not even half of people like the West Midlands (49 per cent, placing it 44th out of 47). Although it seems to suffer also from the fact that...

Everybody hates the Midlands

Honestly, look at that map:

 

Click to expand.

The three bottom rated counties, are all Midlands ones: Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Bedfordshire – which, hilariously, with just 40 per cent approval, is a full seven points behind its nearest rival, the single biggest drop on the entire table.

What the hell did Bedfordshire ever do to you, England? Honestly, it makes Essex’s 50 per cent approval rate look pretty cheery.

While we’re talking about irrational differences:

There’s trouble brewing in Sussex

West Sussex ranks 21st, with a 71 per cent approval rating. But East Sussex is 29th, at just 65 per cent.

Honestly, what the fuck? Does the existence of Brighton piss people off that much?

Actually, we know it doesn’t because thanks to YouGov we have polling.

No, Brighton does not piss people off that much

Click to expand.

A respectable 18th out of 57, with a 74 per cent approval rating. I guess it could be dragged up by how much everyone loves Hove, but it doesn’t seem that likely.

London is surprisingly popular

Considering how much of the national debate on these things is dedicated to slagging off the capital – and who can blame people, really, given the state of British politics – I’m a bit surprised that London is not only in the top half but the top third. It ranks 22nd, with an approval rating of 73 per cent, higher than any other major city except Edinburgh.

But what people really want is somewhere pretty with a castle or cathedral

Honestly, look at the top 10:

City % who like the city Rank
York 92% 1
Bath 89% 2
Edinburgh 88% 3
Chester 83% 4
Durham 81% 5
Salisbury 80% 6
Truro 80% 7
Canterbury 79% 8
Wells 79% 9
Cambridge 78% 10

These people don’t want cities, they want Christmas cards.

No really, everyone hates the Midlands

Birmingham is the worst-rated big city, coming 47th with an approval rating of just 40 per cent. Leicester, Coventry and Wolverhampton fare even worse.

What did the Midlands ever do to you, Britain?

The least popular city is Bradford, which shows that people are awful

An approval rating of just 23 per cent. Given that Bradford is lovely, and has the best curries in Britain, I’m going to assume that

a) a lot of people haven’t been there, and

b) a lot of people have dodgy views on race relations.

Official city status is stupid

This isn’t something I learned from the polls exactly, but... Ripon? Ely? St David’s? Wells? These aren’t cities, they’re villages with ideas above their station.

By the same token, some places that very obviously should be cities are nowhere to be seen. Reading and Huddersfield are conspicuous by their absence. Middlesbrough and Teesside are nowhere to be seen.

I’ve ranted about this before – honestly, I don’t care if it’s how the queen likes it, it’s stupid. But what really bugs me is that YouGov haven’t even ranked all the official cities. Where’s Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, which attained the dignity of official city status in 2012? Or Perth, which managed at the same time? Or St Asaph, a Welsh village of 3,355 people? Did St Asaph mean nothing to you, YouGov?

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and on Facebook as JonnElledgeWrites.

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*A YouGov employee I met in a pub later confirmed this, and I make a point of always believing things that people tell me in pubs.