Can cities use blockchain to promote transparency in music?

The LinkNYC wifi hubs in action. Image: Getty.

Back in December 2014, without much fanfare, hundreds of standalone machines appeared on the streets of New York City, offering a number of free services for residents and tourists. These included accessing free WiFi, making a phone call, looking up directions and finding out important numbers, all accessed through a touchscreen that looks like a cross between a light post and a bikeshare-scheme stand.

The objective behind the LinkNYC screens was to provide free information to all New Yorkers and visitors, regardless of where one was or how much money they had. Accessible, available to everyone, transparent and helpful, the machines have assisted with mobility, access to information, communication and, importantly, civic engagement.

Last year, Estonia launched an e-residency business programme, aimed at recruiting entrepreneurs to register their company in the country and subsequently pay Estonian taxes on their profits. The program does not require business owners to move to Estonia: all filing and requisite paperwork is done online. The residency offer does, however, come with a number of tax incentives across R&D and recruitment to entice those lured digitally to explore opening up a bricks and mortar office.

The program has been especially popular with British businesses worried about Brexit and access to the EU. Using new technologies and methods, another often painstaking process – setting up a business – has been simplified for ease of access, much like finding a free and fast WiFi signal in NYC.

Both these examples use what the sector calls ‘smart’ technologies to improve people’s engagement with civic society. A smart city is one that develops an infrastructure of communication technology to give people access to information and resources in a way that’s almost effortless for the user.

In New York, it is the simple pain of getting around or finding WiFi. In Estonia, it is competing in the global market for entrepreneurs, their ideas and money. Across our cities and towns, more of these new technologies are being beta-tested, incubated and refined. This should engender improvements, especially in one of the most challenging issues in civics and cities today: making everything available to everyone in as fair and transparent a way as possible.

Both examples of successful, smart city technologies are built to foster transparency in a continuously moving organism in an even more complex ecosystem. There are other sectors that can benefit from this way of thinking. Take, for example, our sector and obsession: music. If we open up ideas, solutions and data for everyone, then – hopefully – everyone benefits. For music, transparency is in the eye of the beholder. The way that music is bought, sold and transferred could be rethought if we explore its challenges as a smart cities problem.

With music, the problem is not one with which the majority of the public is concerned: it is negotiated and debated behind closed doors. On the streets, the war against piracy in the mid-2000s is now assuaged. Most people have migrated to streaming services, such as Spotify and YouTube. The problem is, there’s no standard rate in which each song is paid per stream. Each service is different, and within each service, the rate depends on how much one’s track is being streamed at one given time, in one given place.

Behind this, there’s a century-old industry of collection societies, publishers and royalty administrators, moving bits and bytes across the globe in an effort to capture each penny, take a small percentage and then pass the remainder on to the creators.

The system is creaking under the requirement, in the streaming era, to keep track not only of each purchase but of every single listen. While listeners access tracks at the swipe of a touchscreen, payments to creators are slow – and in some areas opaque. Licensing information is not always easily accessible. Most problematically of all, there is not one single database of music copyright: there are several, none of them complete, and occasionally they actually disagree.


In NYC, before LinkNYC appeared, WiFi was more difficult to access in public. To those British businesspeople and entrepreneurs concerned with Brexit, access to the single market was more difficult without Estonia’s e-residency program. With music, the snags lie beneath the surface and that is where transparent systems can create change. Customers may not care or know how much each stream or download provides an artist, but artists and their representatives do. While solutions exist, the organism is not yet benefitting as a whole. The music sector, if treated as a city, is not as open as it should be. Smart cities technologies, ones adapted to impact traffic, banking, housing and healthcare, could be part of the solution, helping to provide a pathway to transparency.

Let’s build a roadmap of a song, from earbud to artist’s bank account. Once streamed, there could very well be five middlemen or women in the process. There can even be more if the chain crosses national borders, for instance if your song is played in Indonesia and you live and work in Boston. These intermediaries include publishing companies, rights administrators, royalty companies, collection societies, record labels, management companies and other entities.

Liken this to the process one goes through to open a bar in New York or stage a music festival in Poland. Both require multiple permissions and permits from different departments, each with their own schedules, objectives and requirements. Navigating the process requires as much work as realizing the art that initiated the process.

Lower barriers to entry, sometimes seen as empowering artists, have also resulted in an increasing number of musicians having to do it all – the flipside of being able to ‘do it yourself’. Without a label or manager, business decisions, from the day-to-day to the strategic, jostle for time with writing and recording. This is the city equivalent of having to grow, tend to and harvest all of one’s vegetables just to be able to eat. It’s having to build the bus before you drive yourself to work.

Looked at as a Smart Cities problem, new solutions present themselves. If a music value chain considered itself 100 per cent transparent, the song roadmap would be available for all to see at the start and end of the road. This could be done through blockchain technology, the notion of a distributed ledger, recording ‘blocks’ of transactions in an immutable ‘chain’.

First conceived to support the digital currency bitcoin, the underlying technology is increasingly being seen as having the potential to disrupt not only financial services but a whole range of sectors from healthcare to the diamond trade – part of the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution. The potential for transforming the music industries is considerable. If income for each track, and for all parties, was to be recorded on a distributed ledger, for instance, then everyone in New York City could stream music from a LinkNYC machine, and rest assured those behind the content were being paid fairly for their work.

The solution here, however, is not only with the music industry. What if a city declared a goal to declare itself 100 per cent music transparent? Let’s unpack this.

Using blockchain technology within a national server, a file could be tagged with a blockchain marker. Once uploaded, this would trigger an instantaneous recognition of the song’s performance and, consequently, a payment into that artist’s wallet, as determined by a predetermined ‘smart contract’ – or programmable transaction, executed automatically, via the blockchain, when certain conditions are met. If the country or city would prohibit the uploading of songs without the relevant file marker, new songs would be tracked and payments would be deposited and allocated in real time, dramatically simplifying what is often a four or five step process.

The music industry is already doing this, albeit slowly. But cities aren’t along for the ride. We need a LinkNYC for music, or an e-residency for copyright. A number of collection societies – the ‘music police’ that license restaurants, cafes, shops and other establishments to play music while monitoring TV and radio – have invested in blockchain technology, working with global players including IBM on developing new architecture. Meanwhile, Spotify recently acquired the blockchain start-up Mediachain.

The LinkNYC program and the Estonian e-business residency removed barriers, created transparency and opened up their product, or service, to everyone. We can do the same with music. Maybe Tallinn and New York City can be the first ever music transparent cities, where every nanosecond of music that makes all our lives better in the places we live was paid for in real time to the rightful owners of each track. It’s just smart.

Dr. Shain Shapiro is founder & CEO of Sound Diplomacy. Marcus O’Dair is a programme Leader at Middlesex University.

 
 
 
 

12 things we learned by reading every single National Rail timetable

Some departure boards, yesterday. Image: flickr.com/photos/joshtechfission/ CC-BY-SA

A couple of weeks ago, someone on Twitter asked CityMetric’s editor about the longest possible UK train journey where the stations are all in progressive alphabetical order. Various people made suggestions, but I was intrigued as to what that definitive answer was. Helpfully, National Rail provides a 3,717 page document containing every single timetable in the country, so I got reading!

(Well, actually I let my computer read the raw data in a file provided by ATOC, the Association of Train Operating Companies. Apparently this ‘requires a good level of computer skills’, so I guess I can put that on my CV now.)

Here’s what I learned:

1) The record for stops in progressive alphabetical order within a single journey is: 10

The winner is the weekday 7.42am Arriva Trains Wales service from Bridgend to Aberdare, which stops at the following stations in sequence:

  • Barry, Barry Docks, Cadoxton, Cardiff Central, Cardiff Queen Street, Cathays, Llandaf, Radyr, Taffs Well, Trefforest

The second longest sequence possible – 8 – overlaps with this. It’s the 22:46pm from Cardiff Central to Treherbert, although at present it’s only scheduled to run from 9-12 April, so you’d better book now to avoid the rush. 

  • Cardiff Central, Cardiff Queen Street, Cathays, Llandaf, Radyr, Taffs Well, Trefforest, Trehafod

Not quite sure what you’ll actually be able to do when you get to Trehafod at half eleven. Maybe the Welsh Mining Experience at Rhondda Heritage Park could arrange a special late night event to celebrate.

Just one of the things that you probably won't be able to see in Trehafod. Image: Wikimedia/FruitMonkey.

There are 15 possible runs of 7 stations. They include:

  • Berwick Upon Tweed, Dunbar, Edinburgh, Haymarket, Inverkeithing, Kirkcaldy, Leuchars
  • Bidston, Birkenhead North, Birkenhead Park, Conway Park, Hamilton Square, James Street, Moorfields
  • Bedford, Flitwick, Harlington, Leagrave, Luton, St Albans City, St Pancras International

There is a chance for a bit of CONTROVERSY with the last one, as you could argue that the final station is actually called London St Pancras. But St Pancras International the ATOC data calls it, so if you disagree you should ring them up and shout very loudly about it, I bet they love it when stuff like that happens.

Alphabetical train journeys not exciting enough for you?

2) The longest sequence of stations with alliterative names: 5

There are two ways to do this:

  • Ladywell, Lewisham, London Bridge, London Waterloo (East), London Charing Cross – a sequence which is the end/beginning of a couple of routes in South East London.
  • Mills Hill, Moston, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road, Manchester Piccadilly – from the middle of the Leeds-Manchester Airport route.

There are 20 ways to get a sequence of 4, and 117 for a sequence of 3, but there are no train stations in the UK beginning with Z so shut up you at the back there.

3) The longest sequence of stations with names of increasing length: 7

Two of these:

  • York, Leeds, Batley, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road
  • Lewes, Glynde, Berwick, Polegate, Eastbourne, Hampden Park, Pevensey & Westham

4) The greatest number of stations you can stop at without changing trains: 50

On a veeeeery slow service that calls at every stop between Crewe and Cardiff Central over the course of 6hr20. Faster, albeit less comprehensive, trains are available.

But if you’re looking for a really long journey, that’s got nothing on:

5) The longest journey you can take on a single National Rail service: 13 hours and 58 minutes.

A sleeper service that leaves Inverness at 7.17pm, and arrives at London Euston at 9.15am the next morning. Curiously, the ATOC data appears to claim that it stops at Wembley European Freight Operations Centre, though sadly the National Rail website makes no mention of this once in a lifetime opportunity.

6) The shortest journey you can take on a National Rail service without getting off en route: 2 minutes.

Starting at Wrexham Central, and taking you all the way to Wrexham General, this service is in place for a few days in the last week of March.

7) The shortest complete journey as the crow flies: 0 miles

Because the origin station is the same as the terminating station, i.e. the journey is on a loop.

8) The longest unbroken journey as the crow flies: 505 miles

Taking you all the way from Aberdeen to Penzance – although opportunities to make it have become rarer. The only direct service in the current timetable departs at 8.20am on Saturday 24 March. It stops at 46 stations and takes 13 hours 20 minutes. Thankfully, a trolley service is available.

9) The shortest station names on the network have just 3 letters

Ash, Ayr, Ely, Lee, Lye, Ore, Par, Rye, Wem, and Wye.

There’s also I.B.M., serving an industrial site formerly owned by the tech firm, but the ATOC data includes those full stops so it's not quite as short. Compute that, Deep Blue, you chess twat.

10) The longest station name has 33 letters excluding spaces

Okay, I cheated on this and Googled it – the ATOC data only has space for 26 characters. But for completeness’ sake: it’s Rhoose Cardiff International Airport, with 33 letters.

No, I’m not counting that other, more infamous Welsh one, because it’s listed in the database as Llanfairpwll, which is what it is actually called.

 

This sign is a lie. Image: Cyberinsekt.

11) The highest platform number on the National Rail network is 22

Well, the highest platform number at which anything is currently scheduled to stop at, at least.

12) if yoU gAze lOng into an abYss the abySs alSo gazEs into yOu

Image: author's own.

“For I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved”, said Thomas.

Ed Jefferson works for the internet and tweets as @edjeff.

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