How a shuttered London Underground station became a model for green energy

Bunhill 2 Energy Centre in north London. (Credit: Paul Raftery)

This article appears on CityMetric courtesy of Blueprint magazine.

On the corner of a north London street, a world-first energy centre provides a blueprint for decarbonising heat in London and major cities around the world.

Bunhill 2 Energy Centre reuses waste heat from the London Underground system to power 550 homes, a primary school and a leisure centre. What’s more, this groundbreaking facility tucks neatly into the urban landscape, with a compact structure devised by Cullinan Studio, which signals its arrival and its civic intentions with a cladding of copper-hued, perforated aluminium panels.

Bunhill 2 was funded by Islington Council and developed in collaboration with Transport for London and the Mayor of London, with research assisted by a grant from the European Union’s CELSIUS project. The newly completed energy centre is a key part of Islington’s strategy to be zero carbon by 2030. Islington-based Cullinan Studio was in on the project from its gestation, having heard about the proposal in 2014 at a meeting of Islington’s Sustainable Energy Partnership, of which it is a member. Having just completed the University of Warwick’s Cryfield Energy Centre (2014), the practice volunteered its expertise, and was enrolled to work with the Islington Energy Team to help bring this project to fruition.

The scheme entailed the refitting and repurposing of an old London Underground station, City Road, which closed in 1922. Flanked by roads and social housing, the energy centre had to be housed within the existing footprint of the old station and its ventilation shaft, which now houses a huge underground fan that extracts warm air from the Northern Line tunnels below. This air is used to heat water that is then pumped to neighbouring buildings through 1.5km of underground pipes. 

“We were very restricted on where we could put anything – on this building everything had a purpose and a specific requirement,” says Cullinan Studio partner Alex Abbey.

The design evolved over the better part of a year and, as the Islington team got up to speed with the new technologies, different elements were tweaked and added – for example, a thermal store, so hot water could be retained and then distributed as needed.

Every element required adjustments, says Abbey: “We always knew there was a gas turbine going in, but then there were heat pumps going on to the roof and they were noisy, so we had to get acoustic advice, and then right to light issues meant we had to adjust the profile of the building, so it wouldn’t affect the adjacent residents… It was very much form following function in the end.”

However, the client was enthusiastic that the building should make a civic statement – unlike many urban energy structures which either hide their purpose behind large walls or within a boring box.

“They want it to be a celebration of how our cities will function,” says Abbey. “It’s about local providers producing power, reducing carbon, pollution and the energy losses from the grid – there is a huge amount of power lost just from transporting it along the wires.”

The resulting structure is a trapezoid shape, wrapped around three shipping containers placed on a steel shelving system. These house the above-ground plant and machinery and need to be easily accessed at any time; the containers can even slide out and be replaced as technology and maintenance requires. So the exterior facades comprise removable, anodised aluminium perforated panels, with stairs and access points neatly incorporated into the frame.

Credit: Paul Raftery

The perforations follow both an aesthetic and engineering logic: the engineering requirement was to provide greater ventilation the higher up the building you go.

“The panels get more and more perforated, because the chillers on the top need lots of air around them,” says Abbey. “That dictated the patterning. We could have done it in a very rudimentary fashion with a rising amount of perforations, but we wanted to make it more interesting… We had to look at loads of precedents. It came down to an idea of thermal currents, trying to get across the idea of warm air or heat rising. If you look at it closely, it starts off quite chunky and in a diamond pattern and then it interlaces and gets smaller and then gets smaller again, kind of tree-like.”

At the corners, the panels switch to an expanded metal mesh, “purely to differentiate between the corner and the flanks,” says Abbey.

In inserting the building into the street, the Cullinan team adhered to good urban planning principals. “We were trying to respect the building lines of the original station along the street,” Abbey explains. “We tried to give it some scale on the street corner, and stacked it higher there, so it has a bit of presence”.

With a large social housing block immediately behind it, and residential towers (at the time unbuilt) scheduled to arrive across the road from it, “we knew it would be a little thing surrounded by giants”, says Abbey, “but as a result, we wanted to have quality, and give it a quiet sense of purpose and power from the street corner”.

Islington’s brief stipulated a base that was vandal-proof but also attractive. “That set us up with the idea of a plinth and a top,” Abbey says. “So we had some fun with the client looking at old precedents for the site – for example, the original underground station had the classic oxblood tiles on it, and there are a lot of buildings in the London Underground with vitreous enamel panels, which are really tough and good against graffiti.” In the end, Cullinan came up with a two-part base: There is a skirting board of black glazed brick, and above that, black vitreous enamel panels. Set within these are Scottish artist Toby Paterson’s work – his cast aluminium panels with coloured enamel insets are based on the internal layout of flats in the nearby King’s Estate.

Credit: Paul Raftery

With the design finally finished and approved in 2015, the project was handed over to executive architect McGurk Architects. The finished building is “pretty much as we proposed,” Abbey says.

This energy centre substantially boosts the capacity of the existing Bunhill Heat and Power district heating network, which was launched in Islington in 2012. Between them they provide power to 1,350 homes, with the potential to heat up to 2,200, plus the primary school and two local leisure centres. Furthermore, the two-metre fan can be reversed to draw cooler air from above and funnel it into the underground system in the summer months. Heating bills for connected council tenants will be cut by 10% compared to other communal heating systems, which apparently already cost half as much as standalone systems heating individual homes.

“We are very proud to be part of it,” Abbey says. “As a practice we have pushed the agenda of sustainable design for decades. But you can only do so much with a building. The usual power station typology is something that sits on its own, and takes rather than gives. Whereas this building gives, which is great. And it’s providing real change socially, helping to eradicate fuel poverty.”

He concludes: “Hats off to Islington: they went with it and were prepared to pay for high-quality materials. They now have a little jewel on the corner there.”

Veronica Simpson is a senior contributing editor at Blueprint Magazine.


The future is here: Register now for Barcelona’s New Economy Week

Barcelona New Economy Week (BNEW) starts this Tuesday with the goal of turning the Catalan city into the "global capital of the new economy".

BNEW runs from 6 to 9 October, with registration remaining open throughout the event, offering insight from 350 speakers on how businesses can bounce back from the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. It will feature top speakers from the business sectors of real estate, logistics, digital industry, e-commerce and economic zones.

The hybrid, business-to-business event – which is taking place in physical and virtual forms – is organised by Consorci de la Zona Franca (CZFB) and will showcase the way in which Barcelona is preparing for the post-Covid world and the "new economy". It is the city’s first big business event of the year and aims to help revitalise and restart the local economy.

“BNEW will be the first great event for the economy’s global recovery that will allow the redesigning of the productive fabric,” says Pere Navarro, state special delegate at CZFB. “It is an honour to have the participation of renowned professionals and attendees from all around the world.

“As we are not in a position to do a proper ‘in person’ fair, we decided to adapt by creating a disruptive and useful event in this way to relaunch the economy.”

The conference will encompass five interconnected events incorporating real estate, logistics, digital industry, e-commerce and economic zones. More than 8,000 professionals from 91 countries from all over the globe will take part virtually. A further 1,000 delegates are expected to attend the five events in person. Over 200 speakers will take part physically, while the rest will give their talks via a digital platform especially created for the unique event. An advanced digital networking platform – using artificial intelligence – will cross-reference the data of all those registered to offer a large number of contacts and directly connect supply with demand.

The conference will also be simultaneously broadcast in high-quality streaming on six channels, one for each of the five interconnected events and an additional stream showcasing Barcelona’s culture and gastronomy.

BNEW will take place in three venues in the city: Estació de França, Casa Seat and Movistar Centre. All are open, digital spaces committed to the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda. Estació de França will host the BNEW Logistics, BNEW E-commerce and BNEW Real Estate events, while Casa Seat will be home to the BNEW Economic Zones event, and the Movistar Centre will host the BNEW Digital Industry.

Some 36 companies are sponsoring BNEW, and 52 start-up companies will take part and present their highly innovative products and services. A further 128 firms will participate in BVillage, a kind of virtual stand where they can show their products and schedule meetings with potential clients.

Highlight sessions will include: "the era of humankind toward the fifth industrial revolution," by Marc Vidal, a digital transformation expert; "rational optimism," by Luca Lazzarini, a commercial communications specialist; and "future smart cities’ challenges and opportunities," by Alicia Asín, a leading voice on artificial intelligence. Sandra Pina will also talk about how sustainability is transforming us, Jorge Alonso on the humane future of cities and Pilar Jericó on how to face changes in the post-Covid era.

BNEW is described as a new way of developing your know-how, expanding your networks and promoting innovation and talent.

“Networking is always one of the main attractions of the events, so to carry it out in this innovative way at BNEW – with the high international profile it boasts – is a great opportunity for companies,” says Blanca Sorigué, managing director of CZFB.

Readers can register for BNEW for free via this link using the discount code BNEWFREE.