How does the layout of a city affect its economic success?

A scale model of Beijing, 2007. Image: Getty.

How does the layout of a city affect its performance? And what are the opportunities and challenges of spatial evidence in policy? Centre for Cities discussed these issues at a recent roundtable with urban planning consultancy Space Syntax.

Space Syntax studies the impact that the physical layout of cities has on the social, organisational and economic performance of urban areas. Developed by researchers at The Bartlett (University College London’s global faculty of the built environment), this theory is used to give streets an ‘accessibility’ score, denoting how well a street is linked to the wider layout of a city: for example, if it is a dead end, its score would be low. Streets are then plotted on a map using different colours for different levels of accessibility – with red meaning more accessible streets and cold colours like blue representing less accessible ones.

The physical fabric of a place has an impact on its performance. One of the examples discussed on the day was the comparison between Ashford, Kent, which has grown over a number of centuries, and the new town of Skelmersdale in West Lancashire.

The two cities have different layouts and this has consequences in terms of city centre accessibility and land use. In Ashford, most streets are interlinked with one another, creating an accessible town centre:

Streets Accessiblity in Ashford.

By contrast, the centre of Skelmersdale is characterized by fragmented streets with many more dead ends. These separated movements make the city centre inaccessible.

Streets accessibility in Skelmersdale.

The accessibility of streets affects land use. Ashford town centre is more accessible, and has a combination of retail and catering businesses, commercial activities and offices, houses and services, all in close proximity.

Land use in Ashford town-centre. 

By contrast, land use in Skelmersdale town centre is much more fragmented (figure 4). The Concourse Shopping Centre dominates the town centre while offices, houses and services are broadly segregated in three different parts.

Land use in Skelmersdale town-centre.

The wider body of research shows that the layout of a city has an impact on a wide range of issues such as crime, social inclusion, poverty, and health. Understanding that impact – and better communicating the implications to policy-makers – has the potential to bring about positive change to the everyday lives of the people who live and work in urban areas.

In conjunction with the researchers at UCL, we will be doing more work in the coming months on the implications of spatial design for policy makers at the local and national level.

Elena Magrini is a researcher at the Centre for Cities, on whose website this article originally appeared.


 

 
 
 
 

CityMetric is now City Monitor! Come see us at our new home

City Monitor is now live in beta at citymonitor.ai.

CityMetric is now City Monitor, a name that reflects both a ramping up of our ambitions as well as our membership in a network of like-minded publications from New Statesman Media Group. Our new site is now live in beta, so please visit us there going forward. Here’s what CityMetric readers should know about this exciting transition.  

Regular CityMetric readers may have already noticed a few changes around here since the spring. CityMetric’s beloved founding editor, Jonn Elledge, has moved on to some new adventures, and a new team has formed to take the site into the future. It’s led by yours truly – I’m Sommer Mathis, the editor-in-chief of City Monitor. Hello!

My background includes having served as the founding editor of CityLab, editor-in-chief of Atlas Obscura, and editor-in-chief of DCist, a local news publication in the District of Columbia. I’ve been reporting on and writing about cities in one way or another for the past 15 years. To me, there is no more important story in the world right now than how cities are changing and adapting to an increasingly challenging global landscape. The majority of the world’s population lives in cities, and if we’re ever going to be able to tackle the most pressing issues currently facing our planet – the climate emergency, rising inequality, the Covid-19 pandemic ­­­– cities are going to have to lead the way.

That’s why City Monitor is now a global publication dedicated to the future of cities everywhere – not just in the UK (nor for that matter just in the US, where I live). Our mission is to help our readers, many of whom are in leadership positions around the globe, navigate how cities are changing and discover what’s next in the world of urban policy. We’ll do that through original reporting, expert opinion and most crucially, a data-driven approach that emphasises evidence and rigorous analysis. We want to arm local decision-makers and those they work in concert with – whether that’s elected officials, bureaucratic leaders, policy advocates, neighbourhood activists, academics and researchers, entrepreneurs, or plain-old engaged citizens – with real insights and potential answers to tough problems. Subjects we cover include transportation, infrastructure, housing, urban design, public safety, the environment, the economy, and much more.

The City Monitor team is made up of some of the most experienced urban policy journalists in the world. Our managing editor is Adam Sneed, also a CityLab alum where he served as a senior associate editor. Before that he was a technology reporter at Politico. Allison Arieff is City Monitor’s senior editor. She was previously editorial director of the urban planning and policy think tank SPUR, as well as a contributing columnist for The New York Times. Staff writer Jake Blumgart most recently covered development, housing and politics for WHYY, the local public radio station in Philadelphia. And our data reporter is Alexandra Kanik, whose previous roles include data reporting for Louisville Public Media in Kentucky and PublicSource in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Our team will continue to grow in the coming weeks, and we’ll also be collaborating closely with our editorial colleagues across New Statesman Media Group. In fact, we’re launching a whole network of new publications, covering topics such as the clean energy transition, foreign direct investment, technology, banks and more. Many of these sectors will frequently overlap with our cities coverage, and a key part of our plan is make the most of the expertise that all of these newsrooms combined will bring to bear on our journalism.

Please visit citymonitor.ai going forward, where you can also sign up for our free email newsletter.


As for CityMetric, some of its archives have already been moved over to the new website, and the rest will follow not long after. If you’re looking for a favourite piece from CityMetric’s past, for a time you’ll still be able to find it here, but before long the whole archive will move over to City Monitor.

On behalf of the City Monitor team, I’m thrilled to invite you to come along for the ride at our new digs. You can follow City Monitor on LinkedIn and on Twitter. If you’re interested in learning more about the potential for a commercial partnership with City Monitor, please get in touch with our director of partnerships, Joe Maughan.

I want to thank and congratulate Jonn Elledge on a brilliant run. Everything we do from here on out will be building on the legacy of his work, and the community that he built here at CityMetric. Cheers, Jonn!

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Sommer Mathis is editor-in-chief of City Monitor.