Chart: The cities of Eastern Europe are suffering a horrific man drought

In their desperation to attract a mate, some Baltic women have been forced to create "man runways". Image: Pablo Andrés Rivero, via Flickr, used under creative commons.

In popular culture, references to "man droughts" are mostly likely to come from Carrie Bradshaw-types, complaining about the lack of eligible billionaires to date. In Eastern Europe, though, the problem is far more literal.

This graph shows that men make up barely 45 per cent of the population of several European capitals.

Source: CityMetric Intelligence

In 2012, Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, had roughly 123 women for every 100 men; in Riga, over the border in Latvia, the figure was 127. By contrast, in Oslo, the European capital with the most equal gender balance, there were just 101 women for every 100 men. (Sorry, boys.)

This is partly down to differences in migration rates – but a depressingly large chunk of the explanation lies in life expectancy. In western countries, it's normal for there to be very slightly more women than men: birth rates are roughly 50:50, but men tend to die younger and, in the average EU state, male life expectancy is approximately 93 per cent that of female life expectancy.

In the east, though, that number is far, far lower. In 2011, life expectancy at birth for Latvian women was 78.8. For Latvian men, it was 68.6, just 87 per cent as long. In Lithuania, where men live to 68.1 and women to 79.3, that ratio is 86per cent.

It’s easy to assume that figures like simply mean that there are fewer elderly men. They don’t. The gender disparity actually becomes noticeable around the age of 30, as, in the words of Latvian sociologist Baiba Bela, "car driving, alcoholism and accidents in the workplace" take their toll on the male population. So, upsettingly, do high suicide rates.

All this means that, in the capitals of Eastern Europe, there genuinely is a shortage of eligible young bachelors. Carrie should look elsewhere.

 
 
 
 

Covid-19 is highlighting cities' unequal access to green space

In the UK, Londoners are most likely to rely on their local park for green space, and have the best access to parks. (Leon Neal/Getty Images)

As coronavirus lockdowns ease, people are flooding back to parks – but not everyone has easy access to green space in their city.

Statistics from Google show that park attendance in countries across the globe has shot up as people have been allowed to move around their cities again.

This is especially true in urban areas, where densely populated neighbourhoods limit the size of private green space – meaning residents have to go to the park to get in touch with nature. Readers from England can use our interactive tool below to find out how much green space people have access to in their area, and how it compares to the rest of the country.

 

Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s announcement Monday that people are allowed to mingle in parks and gardens with groups of up to six people was partially following what people were doing already.

Data from mobile phones show people have been returning to parks across the UK, and also across Europe, as weather improves and lockdown eases.

People have been returning to parks across the world

Stay-at-home requirements were eased in Italy on 4 May, which led to a flood of people returning to parks.

France eased restrictions on 1 May, and the UK eased up slightly on 13 May, allowing people to sit down in public places so long as they remain socially distanced.

Other countries have seen park attendance rise without major easing of lockdown – including Canada, Spain, and the US (although states there have individual rules and some have eased restrictions).

In some countries, people never really stopped going to parks.

Authorities in the Netherlands and Germany were not as strict as other countries about their citizens visiting local parks during lockdown, while Sweden has famously been avoiding placing many restrictions on people’s daily lives.


There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that access to green space has major benefits for public health.

A recent study by researchers at the University of Exeter found that spending time in the garden is linked to similar benefits for health and wellbeing as living in wealthy areas.

People with access to a private garden also had higher psychological wellbeing, and those with an outdoor space such as a yard were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than those without access to outdoor space. 

Separate UK research has found that living with a regular view of a green space provides health benefits worth £300 per person per year.

Access is not shared equally, however, which has important implications for equality under lockdown, and the spread of disease.

Statistics from the UK show that one in eight households has no garden, making access to parks more important.

There is a geographic inequality here. Londoners, who have the least access to private gardens, are most likely to rely on their local park for green space, and have the best access to parks. 

However the high population in the capital means that on the whole, green space per person is lower – an issue for people living in densely populated cities everywhere.

There is also an occupational inequality.

Those on low pay – including in what are statistically classed as “semi-skilled” and “unskilled” manual occupations, casual workers and those who are unemployed – are almost three times as likely as those in managerial, administrative, professional occupations to be without a garden, meaning they rely more heavily on their local park.

Britain’s parks and fields are also at significant risk of development, according to new research by the Fields in Trust charity, which shows the number of people living further than a 10-minute walk from a public park rising by 5% over the next five years. That loss of green spaces is likely to impact disadvantaged communities the most, the researchers say.

This is borne out by looking at the parts of the country that have private gardens.

The least deprived areas have the largest gardens

Though the relationship is not crystal clear, it shows at the top end: Those living in the least deprived areas have the largest private green space.

Although the risk of catching coronavirus is lower outdoors, spending time in parks among other people is undoubtedly more risky when it comes to transmitting or catching the virus than spending time in your own outdoor space. 

Access to green space is therefore another example – along with the ability to work from home and death rates – of how the burden of the pandemic has not been equally shouldered by all.

Michael Goodier is a data reporter at New Statesman Media Group, and Josh Rayman is a graphics and data visualisation developer at New Statesman Media Group.