Which UK cities are most dependent on a single sector?

Trains being built in Derby. Image: Getty.

The Centre for Cities’ recent report on cities’ international trade highlighted that all British cities are heavily dependent on access to the European single market in order to sell their exports. But export dependency takes another form; in some cities a single sector accounts for more than half of a city’s exports. This is the case in Derby, Sunderland, and Cardiff.

The map below shows the cities where a single exporting sector accounts for more than 40 per cent of the total value of exports. It is immediately clear that only some sectors boast such levels of dominance over local economies. The importance of car manufacturing to the West Midlands’ cities, for example, is evident, as is the strength of the Edinburgh and Cardiff financial sectors, and the reliance in some coastal cities on production of ships.

But the map also shows that few cities in Great Britain are dependent on a single export sector, with only 10 of the 62 cities analysed represented on this measure.

Click to expand.

Is this a bad thing? Specialisation brings benefits to cities, enabling them to build clusters of expertise in certain fields, and generating further growth as other companies in the specialist sector relocate to take advantage of the specific skills available in the relevant city.


But recent events remind us of the dangers of being over reliant on one industry. A city that is dependent on a single sector for its exports is vulnerable to shifting patterns of supply and demand in global markets for individual goods or services. Recent troubles in the steel industry that have affected Swansea and Middlesbrough and the current uncertainty in the car industry highlight this. Declines in mining and manufacturing through the 1980s and 1990s and the impacts on particular places act as an underscore to this point.

Given this, the 10 cities on the map above need to widen their export base. Having a large single exporting industry brings jobs and prosperity today, but it doesn’t guarantee that it will do so tomorrow.

Matt Whearty is a researcher at the Centre for Cities, on whose blog this article first appeared.

 
 
 
 

There isn’t a war on the motorist. We should start one

These bloody people. Image: Getty.

When should you use the horn on a car? It’s not, and anyone who has been on a road in the UK in living memory will be surprised to hear this, when you are inconvenienced by traffic flow. Nor is it when you are annoyed that you have been very slightly inconvenienced by another driver refusing to break the law in a manner that is objectively dangerous, but which you perceive to be to your advantage.

According to the Highway Code:

“A horn should only be used when warning someone of any danger due to another vehicle or any other kind of danger.”

Let’s be frank: neither you nor I nor anyone we have ever met has ever heard a horn used in such a manner. Even those of us who live in or near places where horns perpetually ring out due to the entitled sociopathy of most drivers. Especially those of us who live in or near such places.

Several roads I frequently find myself pushing a pram up and down in north London are two way traffic, but allow parking on both sides. This being London that means that, in practice, they’re single track road which cars can enter from both ends.

And this being London that means, in practice, that on multiple occasions every day, men – it is literally always men – glower at each other from behind the steering wheels of needlessly big cars, banging their horns in fury that circumstances have, usually through the fault of neither of them, meant they are facing each other on a de facto single track road and now one of them is going to have to reverse for a metre or so.

This, of course, is an unacceptable surrender as far as the drivers’ ego is concerned, and a stalemate seemingly as protracted as the cold war and certainly nosier usually emerges. Occasionally someone will climb out of their beloved vehicle and shout and their opponent in person, which at least has the advantages of being quieter.

I mentioned all this to a friend recently, who suggested that maybe use of car horns should be formally restricted in certain circumstances.

Ha ha ha. Hah.

The Highway Code goes on to say -

“It is illegal to use a horn on a moving vehicle on a restricted road, a road that has street lights and a 30 mph limit, between the times of 11:30 p.m. and 07:00 a.m.”

Is there any UK legal provision more absolutely and comprehensively ignored by those to whom it applies? It might as well not be there. And you can bet that every single person who flouts it considers themselves law abiding. Rather than the perpetual criminal that they in point of fact are.


In the 25 years since I learned to drive I have used a car horn exactly no times, despite having lived in London for more than 20 of them. This is because I have never had occasion to use it appropriately. Neither has anyone else, of course, they’ve just used it inappropriately. Repeatedly.

So here’s my proposal for massively improving all UK  suburban and urban environments at a stroke: ban horns in all new cars and introduce massive, punitive, crippling, life-destroying fines for people caught using them on their old one.

There has never been a war on motorists, despite the persecution fantasies of the kind of middle aged man who thinks owning a book by Jeremy Clarkson is a substitute for a personality. There should be. Let’s start one. Now.

Phase 2 will be mandatory life sentences for people who don’t understand that a green traffic light doesn’t automatically mean you have right of way just because you’re in a car.

Do write in with your suggestions for Phase 3.