Which English cities have the most fast food outlets? Here’s a map

Mmmmmmmm. Image: Getty.

What are your choices for lunch today? Chances are that, if you live in one of the least affluent parts of the country, fast food outlets are going to make up a large part of the choice on offer.

Research recently published by Public Health England (PHE) found a correlation between high fast food density outlet and deprivation. Some 17 per cent of all fast food outlets in England are in the top 10 per cent most deprived areas in the UK, but only 3 per cent of fast food outlets are in the least deprived local authorities.

These differences matter for public health outcomes – and PHE has urged local authorities to take action to reduce the number of fast food joints in their areas and to promote uptake of more healthy food options.

But what does the data tell us about cities? As in many other aspects of British society, the research shows that there is a clear North/South divide when it comes to fast food distribution in cities. With 196 fast food outlets per 100,000 population, Blackpool is top of the league in terms of its fast-food offering, followed by Hull and many other northern cities.

But Ipswich is the only city in the Greater South East featuring in the top 20. By contrast, Swindon and Oxford have less than half as many fast food outlets as Blackpool, with less than 80 fast foods per 100,000 people.

Source: Public Health England, 2017.

And reflecting the findings from PHE on deprivation, it is clear that the places with the lowest earnings have the highest density of fast food restaurants. For example, Huddersfield and Burnley are among the top ten cities for both share of junk food eateries and the lowest average weekly workplace earnings. At the other end of both scales, Crawley, Slough and Reading are all in the top 10 for earnings but the bottom ten for fast food outlets.


Setting aside for a moment the very serious health concerns associated with fast food consumption, this data gives us interesting insights into the type of amenities cities offer. We often tend to think of cities as places of production, but they are also places of consumption: where people want to live, visit and play.

In many northern cities, fast food outlets play a much larger role in the overall amenity offer of these cities than those further south. This raises a bunch of related questions, such as: how does this reflect the wider amenity offer in these places? How is this different in southern cities? And how is this linked to the strength of the ‘production’ role of a city?

Elena Magrini is a researcher at the Centre for Cities, on whose website this article originally appeared.

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Five ways in which the rest of the world can avoid the homelessness crisis plaguing the US

Housing for all. Image: Nicobobinus/Flickr/creative commons.

Homelessness is a growing problem in the UK, where the number of people sleeping rough has doubled since 2010, yet it is dwarfed by the scale of the issue in the US. More than 500,000 homeless were found across the US during just one night, compared to the UK’s 2017 count of 4,751. Changes in the definition of homelessness and flawed methodologies suggest that the true number for the US could be anywhere from 2.5 to 10.2 times greater.

Millions more live in overcrowded or slum housing, forced to choose between the damage that poor conditions do to their physical and mental health, and the street. All of the US’s housing issues – from foreclosures to evictions to poor conditions – hit communities of colour the hardest.

This is due to a legacy of discrimination, which continues to undercut any commitment to safe and decent housing for all residents, whether in the private or public sector. In my recent book, City of Segregation, I explain how the long, violent history of creating spaces for the white and privileged classes is embedded in a number of practices, which continue in US cities to this day.

Exporting inequality

As private developers and investors seek out urban land in major cities around the world to secure their fortunes, real estate patterns and practices developed within the US are increasingly being observed elsewhere.

In cities as diverse as London, Sydney and Durban, community groups which have been working for decades to improve their neighbourhoods languish with little public or private resource. Meanwhile, developers create spaces for foreign investors and new residents, who anticipate certain protections and privileges such as greater security, high quality amenities and neighbours with similar interests and backgrounds.

This is a driving force behind rising evictions and the criminalisation of homelessness, alongside gated communities, hostile architecture, “broken windows” policing with its focus on prosecuting activities such as graffiti or jaywalking and the growing privatisation of public spaces through regeneration.

But there is still time for other countries to choose a different path. The UK, in particular, can build on the legacies of the post-war political consensus that all residents should have access to quality housing, and its acknowledgement of institutional racism and some history of government anti-racist campaigning.

Both legacies should be improved, but a renewed commitment to a programme of housing and anti-racism are central to increasing equality, prosperity and well-being for all. Based on my research, I’ve come up with five steps which the UK and countries like it can follow, to ensure that future development reduces – rather than drives – homelessness and inequality.


1. Build social housing

Unlike the US, the UK acknowledges a right to a home, and within living memory provided it for a huge swathe of British society. Social housing – whether in the form of traditional council flats, cooperatives or community land trusts – provides a variety of housing types and keeps rents from rising too far beyond wages.

When social housing is widely available, it makes a huge difference to people who – for one reason or another, and often through no fault of their own – become homeless. With social housing to fall back on, homelessness is a temporary condition which can be safely resolved. Without it, homelessness can become a life-destroying downwards spiral.

2. Preserve and expand community assets

Severe segregation in the US stripped entire communities of access to quality food, jobs, education, green spaces, services, banks and loans. Poverty is endemic, and can easily tip into homelessness. While far from perfect, the UK’s post-war commitment to universal provision of services, such as education and health care, and building social housing across all neighbourhoods underpinned a surge in upward mobility.

This achievement should be salvaged from the damage done by Right To Buy – a policy which sold off social housing without replacing it – and austerity, which has prompted a sell-off of public assets and land, as well as the closure of childrens’ services, libraries and community centres.

3. Decommodify housing

A market geared towards building apartment blocks for the portfolios of investors who will never live in them cannot produce the kind of housing and neighbourhoods which residents need, much less at a price they can afford.

While London has been badly affected for some time, this trend is now spreading to other areas of the UK and Europe. Local and national governments must act to prevent global demand for housing as investments from driving prices beyond the reach of those who need real homes.

4. Build communities, not walls

Gates, bars, armed security and homeowner restrictions are all ugly traits of private housing developed within the US context of desperate inequality and racism. The UK has a long and vibrant tradition of community development, creating a supportive built environment and social infrastructure of schools, libraries and other municipal services for residents.

Community assets. Image: Helen K/Flickr/creative commons.

This kind of development, and the social mobility and growing equality it fosters, safeguards public health and safety – not big walls, barbed wire and security guards. The private rented sector in the UK should be regulated to bring it more in line with Europe, where tenants prosper with security of tenure and strong regulation of rents and rent increases.

5. Raise your voice

Those who are bearing the brunt of our current housing crisis must be at the centre of efforts to change it. From tenants’ associations and renters’ unions, to campaign groups such as Justice for Grenfell, it’s vital to support those voices advocating fairer housing rights.

This also means rejecting austerity’s constant cuts to public services, funding social support for physical and mental health and ensuring that homes are safe, decent and secure, to create a safety net for those who are working to improve their communities.

The Conversation

Andrea Gibbons, Researcher in Sustainable Housing and Urban Studies, University of Salford.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.