Which British cities had the best, and worst, 20th centuries?

Liverpool Docks, c1920. Image: Getty.

The latest instalment of our series, in which we use the Centre for Cities’ data tools to crunch some of the numbers on Britain’s cities. 

This year’s Cities Outlook report – the Centre for Cities’ big annual survey of Britain’s urban economies – contains one particular map I haven’t been able to stop thinking about. And so, in the manner of an insomniac writing out her to do list for the next day to make her brain focus on literally anything else, I’m going to write about it.

I actually mentioned this map in last week’s datablog, but I sort of breezed past it, so today I’m going to look at it in more detail. It’s this one:

Click to expand.

That’s 105 years of economic change, from the coronation of George V to the Brexit referendum, all summed up in a single flat image. Green cities gained jobs, purple cities lost them, and the size of the bubble is proportionate to the percentage increase in change.

The results are pretty striking, in terms of both the assumptions they confirm and those contest. Some thoughts.

Most cities gained jobs

The big one first: the vast, vast majority of cities shown here added, rather than last, jobs. By my count, there are seven losers against 52 winners. Most of the winners, indeed have added a lot more jobs, doubling or tripling their workforces.

This isn’t really a surprise: the population of the UK as a whole grew by roughly half in that period. Throw in the fact more industrialised economies tend to be more urban, and the way vast numbers of women entered the workforce in the 20th century, and you’d expect most cities to have gained jobs.

The message – that as some jobs become obsolete, others have popped up to replace them – is clear. But that doesn’t mean that job growth by itself is a measure of economic health.


Mills and ships were a bad bet in 1911

So what do the cities which lost jobs have in common? Here’s the list: Liverpool, Wigan, Blackburn, Burnley, Bradford, Huddersfield, Dundee.

Squint, and there’s a pattern there. Liverpool and Dundee were port cities. The other five were mill towns. All seven grew up around industries which were huge in the 19th century, but are tiny today. 

This pattern becomes even clearer if you consider some of those cities which saw job growth of under 50 per cent, too. Glasgow, Plymouth, Birkenhead, and Hull were also port cities. Barnsley wasn’t a mill-town really, but had originally grown around textiles and another industry which has gone the way of all flesh, coal. The decline of coal and ships probably contributed to the relative declines of Newcastle, Sunderland and Swansea, too.

That just leaves Stoke (pottery), and three bigger cities – Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield. The presence of so many of Britain’s big secondary cities in that list seems to explain much about the mess we are in.

The winners

So what about the other end of the table?

Many of the bigger apparent winners can be explained through specific and obvious factors. Aberdeen has boomed over the last 40 years or so as it became Britain’s oil town.

Then there are the new towns: Warrington, Telford and Slough, the biggest winner of all, with a 900 per cent increase in jobs. This, one suspect, is explained by the fact they started at such a low base, being little more than villages on 1911. (I looked in vain for Milton Keynes before realising it literally didn’t exist in 1911 and so isn’t on the map.)

The shift to the south

The biggest, if least surprising, pattern, though, is the shift to the south. Many northern cities have gained jobs; a few southern ones have lost them. Nonetheless the south east corner of the country is a sea of green in a way the north isn’t. The country’s economic centre of gravity has shifted.

One odd subplot of this map concerns the Midlands. Birmingham excepted, the region has done pretty well since 1911, including in cities like Derby and Coventry that may not feel that way today.

But this I think is a function of our starting point. Since 1911, entire advanced manufacturing industries like cars have arrived, boomed and then slashed their workforces. Start the clock at 1960, I suspect, and this map would look rather different.

You can read the whole of Cities Outlook 2018 here.

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and on Facebook as JonnElledgeWrites

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To beat rising temperatures, Vienna launches a network of 'Cool Streets'

A Vienna resident cools off at one of the city's new Cool Streets installations. (Courtesy Christian Fürthner/Mobilitätsagentur Wien)

Over the past several months, Austria has recorded its highest unemployment rate since World War II, thanks to the economic aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic. With no job or a suddenly smaller income – not to mention the continued threat of the virus – many Viennese will opt for a staycation this summer.  

At the same time, last year, Austria’s capital experienced 39 days with temperatures of over 30°C (86°F), one of its hottest summers in history according to the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics.

Climate experts expect a similarly sizzling 2020 season, and city officials are now doubling down on efforts to combat the heat by launching a “Cool Streets” initiative as well as a new, state-of-the-art cooling park.

“As the city councilwoman in charge of climate, it is my job to ensure local cooling,” Vienna’s deputy mayor Birgit Hebein proclaimed at the opening of one of 22 new “Cool Streets” on 22 June.

“In Austria, there are already more heat deaths than traffic fatalities,” she added.

Hebein was referring to the 766 people the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Security included in its 2018 heat-associated mortality statistics. The number was up by 31% compared to 2017, and in contrast to the 409 people who died in traffic collisions the same year.

The project includes 18 temporary Cool Streets located across the city, plus four roads that will be redesigned permanently and designated as “Cool Streets Plus”.

“The Plus version includes the planting of trees. Brighter surfaces, which reflect less heat, replace asphalt in addition to the installation of shadow or water elements,” said Kathrin Ivancsits, spokeswoman for the city-owned bureau Mobilitätsagentur, which is coordinating the project.


Vienna's seasonal Cool Streets provide shady places to rest and are closed to cars. (Petra Loho for CityMetric)

In addition to mobile shade dispensers and seating possibilities amid more greenery provided by potted plants, each street features a steel column offering drinking water and spray cooling. The temporary Cool Streets will also remain car-free until 20 September.

A sensor in the granite base releases drinking water and pushes it through 34 nozzles whenever the outside temperature reaches 25°C (77°F) . As soon as the ambient temperature drops to 23°C (73°F), the sensor, which operates from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m., turns off the water supply.

The sensors were included in part to allay concerns about legionella, a pathogenic bacteria that can reproduce in water.  

“When the spray stops, the system drains, and therefore no microbial contamination can develop,” said Dr. Hans-Peter Hutter, deputy head of the Department of Environmental Health at the Center for Public Health at Medical University Vienna, in a televised interview.

Hutter also assured the public that there is no increased risk of a Covid-19 infection from the spray as long as people adhere to the one-meter social distance requirement.


But Samer Bagaeen of the University of Kent's School of Architecture and Planning notes that air cooling systems, like the ones used in Germany at abattoirs, have been found recently to be a risk factor for Covid-19 outbreaks.

“The same could be said for spay devices,” he warned.

Vienna’s district councils selected the 22 Cool Street locations with the help of the city’s Urban Heat Vulnerability Index. The map shows where most people suffer from heat by evaluating temperature data, green and water-related infrastructure, and demographic data.

“Urban heat islands can occur when cities replace the natural land cover with dense concentrations of pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that absorb and retain heat,” as the US Environmental Protection Agency states.


A rendering of Vienna's planned park featuring a Coolspot, which is scheduled to open in August. Click to expand.
(Courtesy Carla Lo Landscape Architecture)

Vienna’s sixth district, Mariahilf, is such an area. The construction of the capital’s first “Cooling Park”, a €1 million project covering the 10,600 square-metre Esterházypark, is designed to provide relief. 

Green4Cities, a centre of excellence for green infrastructure in urban areas, designed the park’s main attraction, the “Coolspot”. The nearly 3.40-metre high steel trellis holds three rings equipped with spray nozzles. Textile shading slats, tensioned with steel cables, cover them.

The effects of evaporation and evapotranspiration create a cooler microclimate around the 30 square-metre seating area, alongside other spray spots selectively scattered across the park.

The high-pressure spray also deposits tiny droplets on plant and tree leaves, which stimulates them to sweat even more. All together, these collective measures help to cool their surroundings by up to six degrees.

The landscape architect Carla Lo and her team planned what she calls the “low-tech” park components. “Plants are an essential design element of the Cooling Park,” Lo says. “By unsealing the [soil], we can add new grass, herbaceous beds, and more climate-resistant trees to the existing cultivation”.

Light-coloured, natural stone punctuated by grass seams replaces the old concrete surfaces, and wooden benches meander throughout the park.

Living near the park and yearning for an urban escape close by, Lo says she’s motivated to ensure the park is completed by mid-August.

“If we don't do anything, Vienna will be another eight degrees Celsius hotter in 2050 than it already is,” Hebein said.

Vienna recently came in first in the World's 10 Greenest Cities Index by the consulting agency Resonance.

“There is no one size fits all on how cities respond to urban heat,” says the University of Kent’s Bagaeen, who points out that Vienna was one of the first European cities to set up an Urban Heat Islands Strategic Plan in 2015.

In the short term, prognoses on the city’s future development may be more difficult: Vienna votes this autumn.

Petra Loho is a journalist and photographer based in Austria.