How badly would cuts to international student visas hurt UK city economies?

Coventry is one of the cities that would be hit hardest by student visa cuts. Image: cmglee/Wikimedia Commons.

News that the government is looking to halve international student visas will no doubt be a concern for the higher education sector, and to those worried about the UK’s poor export performance. But it’s also likely to have big implications for a number of cities across the country.

Any restriction on visas, if applied tomorrow, would apply only to those students outside of the EU. However, this may change when the UK exits the EU, and so in the following analysis we look at all international students to look at the wider effect it might have.

In 2014-15, there were around 440,000 students from abroad studying in the UK – one-fifth of all students at UK higher education institutions (not including the Open University). Chinese students made up by far the largest share of these students, accounting for 20 per cent of all international students. To put this into perspective, Indian students made up the second biggest group of foreign students, accounted for 4 per cent in total.

Of course, these students were not evenly distributed across the UK, with London unsurprisingly the most popular destination, attracting a quarter of international students. However, as a share, Coventry had the largest number of foreign students – the table below shows that almost a third of those studying in the city were from outside of the UK. As was the case in most cities, China was the most common country of origin, with a quarter of all foreign students in Coventry being Chinese. Ipswich, on the other hand, had the lowest share, with just 2 per cent of students from abroad.

Source: HESA Admissions. Note: Cities with campuses of fewer than 500 students were excluded from the analysis.

Cuts to student visas could have big implications for cities such as Coventry, Exeter and Sunderland. Universities UK estimated that foreign students were worth a total of £10.7bn to the UK economy in 2011-12, through fees and money spent by the students in their time here.

Taking this figure and applying it to the location of foreign students would mean that they were worth £380m to the Coventry economy, £123m the Exeter economy and £83m to the Sunderland one. In Coventry this was equivalent to over 6 per cent of its total output in 2011-12.

The current political climate means that talking about visa restrictions is popular with the electorate. But such decisions will have an economic impact too, and may well hurt the very places the government is attempting to help through its place-based industrial strategy. And this, surely, would be counterproductive.

You can see more analysis on migration and student and new graduate mobility in the Centre for Cities’ Great British Brain Drain report.


Paul Swinney is senior economist at the Centre for Cities. This article was originally published on the think tank’s blog.

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Academics are mapping the legacy of slavery in Britain’s cities

A detail of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership map showing central Bristol. Image: LBS/UCL.

For 125 years, a statue of the 17th century slave-trader Edward Colston stood in the centre of Bristol, ostensibly to commemorate the philanthropy he’d used his blood money to fund. Then, on 7 June, Black Lives Matter protesters pulled it down and threw it into the harbour

The incident has served to shine a light on the benefits Bristol and other British cities reaped from the Atlantic slave trade. Grand houses and public buildings in London, Liverpool, Glasgow and beyond were also funded by the profits made from ferrying enslaved Africans across the ocean. But because the horrors of that trade happened elsewhere, the role it played in building modern Britain is not something we tend to discuss.

Now a team at University College London is trying to change that. The Legacies of British Slave-Ownership project is mapping every British address linked to a slave-owner. In all, its database contains 5,229 addresses, linked to 5,586 individuals (some addresses are linked to more than one slave owner; some slave owners had more than one home). 

The map is not exact. Streets have often been renumbered; for some individuals, only a city is known, not necessarily an address; and at time of writing, only around 60% of known addresses (3,294 out of 5,229) have been added to the map. But by showing how many addresses it has recorded in each area, it gives some sense of which bits of the UK benefited most from the slave trade; the blue pins, meanwhile, reflect individual addresses, which you can click for more details.

The map shows, for example, that although it’s Glasgow that’s been noisily grappling with this history of late, there were probably actually more slave owners in neighbouring Edinburgh, the centre of Scottish political and financial power.

Liverpool, as an Atlantic port, benefited far more from the trade than any other northern English city.

But the numbers were higher in Bristol and Bath; and much, much higher in and around London.

 

Other major UK cities – Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Newcastle – barely appear. Which is not to say they didn’t also benefit from the Triangular Trade (with its iron and weaponry industries, Professor David Dabydeen of Warwick University said in 2007, “Birmingham armed the slave trade”) – merely that they benefited in a less direct way.

The LBS map, researcher Rachel Lang explained via email, is “a never-ending task – we’re always adding new people to the database and finding out more about them”. Nonetheless, “The map shows broadly what we expected to find... We haven’t focused on specific areas of Britain so I think the addresses we’ve mapped so far are broadly representative.” 

The large number in London, she says, reflect its importance as a financial centre. Where more specific addresses are available, “you can see patterns that reflect the broader social geography”. The high numbers of slave-owners in Bloomsbury, for example, reflects merchants’ desire for property convenient to the City of London in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when the district was being developed. Meanwhile, “there are widows and spinsters with slave property living in suburbs and outlying villages such as Chelsea and Hampstead. Country villas surround London.” 


“What we perhaps didn’t expect to see was that no areas are entirely without slave owners,” Lang adds. “They are everywhere from the Orkney Islands to Penzance. It also revealed clusters in unexpected places – around Inverness and Cromarty, for example, and the Isle of Wight.” No area of Britain was entirely free of links to the slave trade.

 You can explore the map here.

Jonn Elledge was founding editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and on Facebook as JonnElledgeWrites.

All images courtesy of LBS/UCL