Why the Berlin U-Bahn’s newest trains will actually be the oldest subway trains in Europe

Some U-Bahn D-stock when it was last rolled out, as a museum piece for the subway's 75th anniversary. Image: Wikimedia Commons/Jcornelius

Berlin’s newest trains are also going to be its oldest trains: the subway is currently so short of rolling stock it’s bringing back 3 of the “Doras”, the first of its trains built after World War 2, complete with vintage adverts.

Ironically they’re coming back into service on Berlin’s newest bit of subway, the U55, which was initially planned to provide a transport link for the then newly Berlin-based German government with the rest of the city after unification became a thing in the early 1990s. The U55 line was plagued with a number of delays - for many years no-one wanted to pay for it, then once they did it flooded - but was finally opened in 2009 as a mile-long stub of a line that’s not properly connected to anything else: London readers can basically think of it as Berlin’s Waterloo and City line.

There is a plan to make it a bit more useful by extending it and connecting it up to the U5 (which was always the plan, before they ran out of money the first time around), but until then Berlin isn’t wasting any fancy new trains on it, so they’re making a feature of running some of the network’s oldest stock - the D series, originally introduced in 1957. The trains, which will be refurbished up to modern standards, are among the last of their kind still kept in Germany - most of them were flogged off to North Korea in the 1990s. When the link with the U5 is completed, in 2020, the last Doras will finally be allowed to rest.

This will make the nearly 60-year-old trains among the oldest to run on any European subway service - beating the 1960s trains that ran on the London Underground’s Metropolitan Line until 2012 (the last tube trains to have luggage racks and umbrella hooks!). They’ll still be some distance short of the world record holder - Buenos Aires’s 100-year-old La Brugeoise rolling stock, which was finally retired in 2013.

The record in Europe is the original Glasgow Subway stock, which lasted from the opening of the system in 1896 until 1977, although the ex-London Underground stock living out its “gentle retirement” on the Isle of Wight’s railways is getting close, if you count subway trains that aren't really subway trains anymore.



How can we stop city breaks killing our cities?

This couple may look happy, but they’re destroying Barcelona. Image: Getty.

Can’t wait to pack your bags and head off on holiday again? It used to be that people would look forward to a long break in summer – but now tourists have got used to regular short breaks through the year. We love to jet off to the world’s glittering cities, even if only for a day or two. The trouble is, binge travelling may be killing the places we visit.

You may even have seen some “tourists go home” graffiti on your last trip, and it’s not hard to see why. Barcelona is a good example of how a city can groan under the weight of its popularity. It now has the busiest cruise port, and the second fastest growing airport in Europe. Walking through the Barcelona streets at peak season (which now never seems to end) flings you into a relentless stream of tourists. They fill the city’s hot spots in search of “authentic” tapas and sangria, and a bit of culture under the sun. The mayor has echoed residents’ concerns over the impact of tourism; a strategic plan has been put in place.

It is true though, that cities tend to start managing the impact of tourism only when it is already too late. It creeps up on them. Unlike visitors to purpose-built beach destinations and national parks, city-break tourists use the same infrastructure as the locals: existing systems start slowly to stretch at the seams. Business travellers, stag parties and museum visitors will all use existing leisure facilities.

‘Meet the friendly locals’, they said. Image: Sterling Ely/Flickrcreative commons.

Barcelona may only be the 59th largest city in the world, but it is the 12th most popular with international visitors. Compared to London or Paris, it is small, and tourism has spiked sharply since the 1992 Olympics rather than grown steadily as in other European favourites like Rome.

Growth is relentless. The UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) even speaks about tourism as a right for all citizens, and citizens are increasingly exercising that right: from 1bn international travellers today, we will grow to 1.8bn by 2030, according to UNWTO forecasts.

Faced with this gathering storm, just who is tourism supposed to benefit? Travellers, cities, residents or the tourism industry?

Market forces

Managing the impact of tourism starts by changing the way destinations market themselves: once the tourists arrive, it’s too late. Tourism authorities need to understand that they are accountable to the city, not to the tourism industry. When the city of Barcelona commissioned the University of Surrey to look into how it might best promote sustainable development, we found a series of techniques which have been incorporated, at least in part, into the city’s 2020 Tourism Strategy.

In the simplest terms, the trick is to cajole tourists into city breaks which are far less of a burden on the urban infrastructure. In other words, normalising the consumption of sustainable tourism products and services. In Copenhagen, 70 per cent of the hotels are certified as sustainable and the municipal authority demands sustainability from its suppliers.

Higher than the sun. A primal scream from the world’s cities? Image: Josep Tomàs/Flickr/creative commons.

Destinations must also be accountable for the transport impact of their visitors. The marketing department might prefer a Japanese tourist to Barcelona because on average they will spend €40 more than a French tourist – according to unpublished data from the Barcelona Tourist Board – but the carbon footprint we collectively pay for is not taken into account.

Crucially, for the kind of city breaks we might enjoy in Barcelona, most of the carbon footprint from your holiday is from your transport. Short breaks therefore pollute more per night, and so destinations ought to be fighting tooth and nail to get you to stay longer. It seems like a win for tourists too: a few extra days in the Spanish sun, a more relaxing break, and all accompanied by the warm glow of self-satisfaction and a gold star for sustainability.

Destinations can also target customers that behave the most like locals. Japanese first-time visitors to Barcelona will crowd the Sagrada Familia cathedral, while most French tourists are repeat visitors that will spread out to lesser-known parts of the city. Reducing seasonality by emphasising activities that can be done in winter or at less crowded times, and geographically spreading tourism by improving less popular areas and communicating their particular charms can also help reduce pressure on hot spots, much like Amsterdam is doing.

Turnover is vanity, and profit margins are sanity. No city should smugly crow about the sheer volume of visitors through its gates. If tourism is here to stay, then the least cities can do is to sell products that will have the greatest benefit for society. Whether it’s Barcelona, Berlin, Bologna or Bognor, there should be a focus on locally and ethically produced products and services which residents are proud to sell. Tourist boards should work with small businesses that offer creative and original things to do and places to stay, adding breadth to the city’s offering.

The ConversationWhether Barcelona will introduce these ideas will depend on the bravery of politicians and buy-in from the powerful businesses which are happily making short-term profits at the expense of residents and the planet. It is possible to do things differently, and for everyone to benefit more. It may be that the tipping point lies in the age-old mechanics of supply and demand: bear that in mind next time you’re booking a quick city break that looks like it’s only adding to the problem.

Xavier Font is professor of marketing at the University of Surrey.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.