Novelty or necessity? The world's best sleeper trains

When California finally secedes from Trump's Union, this train will be your only way across the land border. Image: Amtrak.

There’s something about a sleeper train that can’t be replicated by any other form of travel.

Bedding down in a narrow bunk, being gently rocked to sleep with track noise as a lullaby; waking up at 2am to peek at a station platform in a different country to where you started; queueing outside the toilet with six other people in order to brush your teeth.

But with the advent of cheap flights and high-speed rail, night trains are on the back foot. Luckily there are still scheduled services where you can kip as you ride the rails. We can’t hope to cover them all here, so for a completely comprehensive guide, try the Man in Seat 61.

For the sleeper train novice, a quick introduction: there are several sleeping options, not always available on all services. The most comfortable, private and expensive option is a one-to-three berth compartment, with decent mattresses, bedding and at least a sink, sometimes private or shared. Lower down the price scale is the couchette, which come in four-to-six berths per compartment. They’re more basic; you share washing facilities with the whole carriage and you usually don’t get changed into your jammies to sleep.

And then there are the normal seats, which we absolutely do not recommend. Seriously, don’t do this. It’s like the hell of an overnight flight but without the complimentary booze.

With that, here we go...

UK

We on this tiny isle can boast two sleeper trains. They both have the same basic setup: compartments sleep two people with washbasins. There are no showers on board, though you can use showers at various stations.

The Night Riviera (we kid you not about that name) runs between London Paddington and Cornwall. Ticketing is gloriously simple, costing £60 for a single occupancy cabin and £70 for double, added onto your ticket to travel.

A saucily-lit berth on the Night Riviera. Image: GWR

Complimentary breakfast means a bacon sandwich (veggie options are presumably available).

It’s getting a refit as we write, including adding USB charging points, and will eventually look very fancy.

The UK’s other sleeper is the Caledonian sleeper, running between London Euston and various locations in (as the name suggests) Scotland. Unlike the Night Riviera you can book just a berth rather than a whole cabin (isn’t that worse than sleeping in a six-berth couchette, somehow? You know, creepier?).

All aboard for indepen-don't. Image: Caledonian Sleeper

It’s not the cheapest: London to Inverness in a bed in a cabin that you may have to share with one other person will set you back at least £80*, and you don’t even get breakfast. First class gets you a cabin to yourself and breakfast, but it’s £175*.

*These are UK train fares, so your actual costs may vary according to when you book, when you’re travelling and how many cats crossed your path that morning.

Scandinavia

As usual, the Scandinavians do things properly. In Sweden, you can travel from Malmö or Gothenburg in the south all the way to the Arctic Circle, over the course of a full day. And for the cost of a flight, airport transfers and a mid-range hotel in Stockholm (approx. £150), you can travel in a first class compartment with your own bathroom and shower (sleeper train regulars will know how big a deal this is) from the capital to Lapland, which is going to be part of my next summer holiday thankyouverymuch.

Finland has upgraded some of its sleeper trains that run between the south and Lapland, to (always cool) double deck sleeping cars.

Lie back in the VIP Suite and think about Mother Russia. Image: Russian Railway

The really exciting bit, though, is the sparkling Siemens trains on the Russian-run Tolstoi overnight service from Helsinki to Moscow, where for as little as €116 you can get a first class cabin – in theory one to yourself, though I’ve failed to make that happen on the booking system. Still no private shower: you’ll need to pay upwards of €300 for a VIP suite, with its swagged curtains, for that pleasure. Curtain pelmets, ruched table covers and e-books of Leo Tolstoy’s works however, are for everyone.

 Here’s someone who’s done the trip and taken a lot of photos.

Continental Europe

Europe’s sleeper trains are undergoing a radical shake-up as some operators drop out and others step in. Routes I took not that many years ago – Paris-Munich and Paris-Madrid, for example – no longer exist. Deutsche Bahn doesn’t run sleeper services any more, but Austrian operator ÖBB has stepped in to fill some of the voids.

ÖBB has bought some of DB’s trains and is working on upgrading its fleet, aiming for new trains entering service in 2020 – which says a lot for its confidence in the service. Its network stretches from Hamburg to Rome and Zurich to Vienna, offering a variety of sleeping options: you can have your own compartment for €169 between Vienna and Venice (add €20 if you also want your own shower) or €89 if you’re willing to share with up to five others. And you get breakfast with your bed, which is a nice (and often overlooked) touch.

An ÖBB NightJet berth from Vienna Hauptbahnhof. Image: DB Autozug GmbH

Spain’s Renfe runs two routes within Spain (Galicia to Madrid and Barcelona) and from Madrid to Lisbon, no longer venturing beyond the Iberian Peninsula. They also have the option of a cabin with your own shower (€177 to Lisbon), or as little as €50 for a bed in a four-berth couchette. I only hope the Trenhotel is now properly air-conditioned, as a trip in a couchette from Paris to Madrid during a summer heat-wave once left me considering whether to burn the clothes I slept in.


For those on a budget, it’s entirely possible to get across Europe for less than €40 in a couchette – more functional than romantic, the UberPool of sleeper trains if you will – by planning in advance. You can pick up a €35 ticket from Paris to Venice in a six berth couchette on the Thello, for example, though it sounds a bit like organised chaos.

Other fun options include the MetroPol, which runs between Berlin and Vienna or Budapest via Prague from as little as €39, and Snälltåget, which runs occasional trains from Malmö to Åre between Christmas and Easter, and from Malmö to Berlin in summer from £35.

Japan

The bullet train has killed off most of Japan’s sleeper services. One of the holdouts, Sapporo in Hokkaido to Tokyo, ran its last train in August 2015, a few months before the Shinkansen opened its new route through to the island – here’s a first hand account of the journey in 2014. You can now get the bullet train all the way through to Hakodate in five hours, though it takes another three or four to chug up to Sapporo (the new Shinkansen line won’t open up to there until 2031).

The only scheduled sleeper train still running is the Sunrise Seto and Sunrise Izumo, which runs between Tokyo and Takamatsu in Shikoku and Izumo in the south west of Honshu (the train splits at Okayama).

The Sunrise Express trundling past rice paddies. Image: Mitsuki

The best thing about these trains is the basic ‘seat’ option, which isn’t a seat at all, but a lie-flat sleeping platform called Nobinobi, which is included with a Japan Rail Pass. This guy can show you.

Of course, you could just get the bullet train and a limited express during the day that would take less than seven hours, but where’s the romance? Speaking of which… On the other side of the scale, some of Japan’s rail companies are bringing back sleeper trains with a luxury twist. The Seven Stars in Kyushu, and new services for 2017 – the Twilight Express and Shiki-Shima – are tourist packages under a different name and therefore don’t count.

North America

There are some stunning train journeys across the US, but the size of the place makes it almost inevitable you’ll be travelling overnight. Amtrak is prepared for your accommodation questions, and has two types of trains: the double-deck Superliner and one-level Viewliner. All compartments in the Viewliner have their own toilet and some their own shower; in the cheaper Roomettes on the Superliner you have to share a loo and washing facilities.

The California Zephyr is perhaps the most famous train. It travels between Chicago and Emeryville, CA, through plains and mountains and across the Mississippi. It takes 52 hours, and a cheap Roomette will cost you at least $600, all meals included. Prepare to pay up to $1,800 for your own bathroom – if you can find one at all (they’re very popular). You could tack on an overnight from New York to Chicago on the Lake Shore if you wanted to go coast-to-coast; the route follows the Hudson Valley and looks spectacular.

But you still have to think that this isn’t practical travel. It’s slow and expensive, and the cars are no different to those you’d take on an overnight hop from Berlin to Vienna i.e., you may start to go stir crazy. European and Japanese trains are timed to be useful – leave around 9pm, arrive before 8am – whereas the Zephyr will get you into Denver and Reno for your morning meeting, but not much else. And according to Amtrak’s website, there isn’t even wifi on board.

(There’s a parallel here with the Trans-Siberian Express, across Russia, which is used by locals for real travel - but for foreigners, let’s face it, the journey itself is the point. Here’s a Guardian journalist taking it last year.)

Canada, on the other hand, has realised that its long distance trains are a treat, part of the holiday. So as well as offering berth options (where you can go all the way from Toronto to Vancouver over four nights for £630), VIA Rail has invested in super-swanky ‘Prestige’ compartments with a cosy double bed looking out on a picture window, and gives you a concierge, all your meals (and booze) and a private bathroom. Sure, it costs upwards of £2,340, but if you wanted cheap you’d fly.

The painfully beautiful Prestige compartment. Image: VIA Rail

Perhaps the future of sleepers is the way of planes: first class cosseting for a few subsidising economy berths for the rest of us.

Australia

Australia has one of the world’s great rail journeys, the Ghan, but it only runs once a week in each direction between Adelaide and Darwin so it’s not terribly useful. However, since we’re talking about planes, here’s an idea from QueenslandRail: lie-flat beds.

Look at this and try not to weep. Image: Queensland Rail

We have them in the air, why not on the ground? On the Spirit of Queensland between Brisbane and Cairns (a 2- hour journey) there aren’t any private compartments, just a choice between the Rail Bed (advance fare 240) and a seat. You also get TVs and free meals. Though given the lack of privacy and still having to share a shower and sink with the rest of the train, you’re really paying for the novelty.

Hopefully, ‘novelty’ won’t be the fate of all sleeper trains in the future.

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Where did London’s parakeets come from?

Parakeets in the skies above Wormwood Scrubs, west London. Image: Getty.

Visitors to London’s many green spaces would have to be stubbornly looking at their feet to not see one of the UK’s most exotic birds.  Dubbed “posh pigeons” by unimaginative Londoners, these brilliant green parakeets stand out among the fauna of Northern Europe’s mostly grey cities.

‘Parakeets’ is actually an umbrella term referring to the multiple species, which can now be found in London, Amsterdam, Brussels, Paris and various German cities. By far the most common is the Indian ring-necked parakeet, easily recognisable by the stylish red ring around their neck, a matching red beak and, of course, the loud squawking.

In the last 50 years these migrants from South Asia have arrived and thrived, settling into their own ecological niche. In the UK, London is a particular stronghold, but although they may have originally settled in the leafy streets of Twickenham, the birds can now be found in cities as far north as Glasgow.

The story of how they ended up in London is a matter of some discussion and plenty of myth. One often reported theory is that the capitals’ current population are the descendants of birds that escaped from Shepperton Studios during filming of The African Queen, starring Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn. Others would tell you that they escaped from Syon Park in the early 1970s, when a piece of debris from a passing plane damaged the aviary and allowed them to escape. This chimes with their original concentration in South West London.
My favourite story by far is that they were released by Jimi Hendrix on Carnaby Street in the late 60s. Bored of London’s grey skyline, he set the little fellas free to liven up the place.

However they got here, from 1970 onwards their numbers boomed. In 1992, 700 birds were recorded in London Bird Report. By 1998, 2,845 were seen in the London Area, and by 2006 the ring-neck parakeet was 15th most sighted bird in London.


Darwin would be proud at how well they adapted to the new environment. Toughened up by the hard Himalayan climate, they handle the cold northern European winters better than most locals. Global warming is often brought up in discussions of the parakeets, but it is certainly only part of the story.
It helps, too, that the birds have a 35 year lifespan and few local predators, enabling them to breed freely.

As with any new species, the debate has raged about whether they are harmful to the ecosystem. Strangely reminiscent of the debate over human migrants, often the birds have often been accused of stealing the homes of the natives. The parakeets do nest in tree cavities also used by jackdaws, owls and woodpeckers – but there is little evidence that native species are being muscled out. 

The also provide a food source for Britain's embattled birds of prey. Owls and peregrine falcons have been know to eat them. Charlie and Tom, two city dwelling falcons monitored by Nathalie Mahieu, often bring back parakeets as food.
Of more concern is the new arrivals’ effect on plants and trees. By 2009 their numbers in the UK had grown so much that they were added to the “general licence” of species, which can be killed without individual permission if they are causing damage.

And Parrotnet, am EU funded research project studying the development of parakeet populations across Europe, has warned of the risk they pose to agriculture. In their native India, the parakeets are known to cause widespread damage to crops. As agriculture develops in the UK in line with warmer climates, crops such as maize, grapes and sunflower will become more popular. In India the birds have been documented as reducing maize crops by 81 per cent.

So the parakeets remain divisive. Environmentalist Tony Juniper has disparagingly described them as “the grey squirrel of the skies”. By contrast, the University of York biologist Chris D. Thomas has argued that the parakeets should be left free to move and breed. He sees those wary of the parakeet boom of “irrational persecution” of the bird.

For good or ill the parakeets are here to stay. As so often with migrants of all kinds, there has been some unease about the impact they have had – but the birds, popular amongst Londoners, certainly add colour to the city. Thriving in the urban environment thousands of miles from their natural habitat, they are a metropolitan bird for Europe’s metropolitan cities. 

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