How did (more of) the world’s major rail terminals get their names?

Never called Great Central: Marylebone, 1921. Image: Getty.

Last week on these pages, I published this piece about how the world’s major rail terminals got their names.

Having pondered the matter for, oooh, minutes, at least, I concluded that there were five main categories:

  • Stations named for their location (streets, districts, compass points or landmarks);
  • Stations named for their function (Union Stations, Hauptbahnhof);
  • Stations named after their destination;
  • Stations named after the company that built them;
  • Stations named to commemorate someone or something (kings, politicians, battles and so forth).

At the end of the article, I noted that – surprising as it may seem to those who’ve had to endure my company for any length of time – I do not in fact have an encyclopaedic knowledge of every railway in the world, and that I’d no doubt missed a few. If I had, I suggested, people should write in.


People wrote in. A lot of people.

Here are some of the things they said.

Things I meant to include but totally forgot

Several people pointed out that Edinburgh Waverley is named not for a person or an event, but for Sir Walter Scott’s Waverley novels. Annoyingly, I knew this, and had meant to crowbar it into the “commemorative section”, but forgot. Also, in retrospect, I’m not entirely sure it fits.

A couple of people also mentioned Brussels Midi. That sounds like it should mean “central” (middle), but actually it means “south”: it’s named after the direction the sun is in at noon. So there you go.

“Functions” I’d missed

Adrian Austin noted there’s a category of stations named after functions that I’d missed:

Bradford Interchange (and, pre-Metrolink) Bury Interchange. Of course it is still called that but now on a tram line rather than heavy rail...

Nick Lester-Davis had a few of these, too:

Cardiff Central used to be known as Cardiff General, as was Reading General.   Perhaps this is the nearest equivalent to ‘Union’ or ‘Hauptbahnhof’.   Workington used to be called Workington Main and this also fits. There’s also ‘high/low level’ (Wolverhampton, Heath, Shotton, etc)

He also pointed to a number of stations called things like “Exchange” as something that didn’t fit, though I’d put it in the “function” category, too. In fact, here’s Tim Lidbetter to back me up on that:

“General” or “Exchange” was often used for an interchange station between two or more companies. I think the only survivor is Wrexham General (which also still has a Central and used to have an Exchange as well)

Tim also points out something entirely obvious that I’d missed because I was focused on terminals, not all stations: “Junction” is a modifier based on function, too.

“Companies” I’d missed

Tim also pointed towards a few more stations named for the company that built them:

Company names appear in stations such as Wigan North Western (the LNWR), Sheffield Midland, etc. When Peterborough had two stations, the “North” station was near the west gate of the city and the “East” station was near the south gate – being named after the Great Northern and Great Eastern railways respectively.

So did Nick Lester-davis:

Stations named after the company that built them: Leicester, Rugby and many others had ‘central’ stations not because they were central but because they were built by the Great Central. Gainesborough Central still exists.   Others named after their company include Bedford Midland.

Things I just got wrong

Quoth Richard Gadsden:

Bristol Parkway isn’t named for the function. Parkway stations (in the functional sense, ie out-of-town park and ride stations) are named after Bristol Parkway, but Bristol Parkway is named after the road that’s next to it – also known as the M32.

Oops.

Tim Lidbetter:

The Great Central railway’s London terminus was always called Marylebone, although the Bakerloo tube’s station serving it was originally called Great Central.

Ah.

Marcus Schodorf:

Just a point of contention with your latest article on rail terminal names. Grand Central Terminal wasn’t built to consolidate several different rail companies, it was built solely for the New York Central railway, thus Grand Central. The NY Central did later merge with the Pennsylvania RR, but that was way after they built their stations.

While we’re on the subject, from Randy Alfred of Yale:

It’s Grand Central Terminal, not “station,” because no trains run through it. This is an American thing. Grand Central Station is a U.S. post office branch.

So, there you go.

And finally...

Two vignettes about stations which don’t fit into any of my categories. This one from Kevin Montgomery doesn’t technically concern a terminal, but what the hell, it’s interesting:

One possible sub-category suggestion? Stations named after companies they were built for, rather than built by. Am thinking of the bizarre little station in Inverclyde, Scotland called IBM.

IBM was built for the company by BR with massive subsidy from Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive in mid 1970s. All part of the efforts to attract investment to deprived areas, so IBM didn’t contribute as far as I am aware

The station was odd as for years it only served the factory. You weren’t supposed to be allowed to use it otherwise. Greenock being Greenock that was untenable.

The factory is unfortunately long gone, and it’s now part of a business park. This has impact on passenger numbers and I suspect eventually it will be shut.

Then there’s this from Christopher McCanna:

Melbourne’s Southern Cross Station was previously named Spencer Street station after its location. However, after a complete rebuild, it was renamed to Southern Cross in 2005. 

A news article from the time quotes the then state premier describing the name as

“It stands for our federation because it’s the heart of our national flag... and it also stands for democracy and freedom because it flew over the Eureka Stockade, which was only two years before we had a full democracy and a vote for a government in Victoria.”

So it’s not really named after a particular event, but rather a literal constellation and a figurative concept around democracy.

Incidentally: I will, eventually, finally get around to writing the piece on the taxonomy of metro station names that I’ve been meaning to do for years. If you have any thoughts on that, you know what to do.

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and also has a Facebook page now for some reason. 

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How do North Koreans get to work? A guide to transport in the DPRK

Buhung station, on the Pyongyang Metro. Image: Jodie Hill.

Like so much else in North Korea, the country’s transport can be divided into categories: Pyongyang and not Pyongyang.

In the capital, centrally-run transportation is, compared to other extremely poor countries, efficient, cheap and well maintained. Outside Pyongyang, by contrast, the state has withered away – albeit not quite as Marx imagined it would. The near total collapse of state run transport infrastructure has left room for a wide range of enterprising North Koreans to make their living in the transport sector – provided, of course, a chunk of those proceeds makes its way back to the party.

So how do North Koreans get around Pyongyang?  

Here’s a homemade map of the city’s transport section:

A homemade map of the Pyongyang transport sector. Image: Michael Hill.

Some notes on all this. The names for Subway stations are translations of the Korean names, but bear no relation to their location. I filled in the (unnamed) trolley bus and tram stop names myself, with reference local landmarks; in fact, those systems both stop way more than my map implies.

What’s more, the Gwangmyeong/Bright Future station is closed, and has been for years – out of respect for Kim Jeong Il and Kim Il Sung who are in a nearby mausoleum, which used to be Kim Il Sung’s Pyongyang pad. The tramline to Gwangmyeong/Bright Future is also not really part of the public transport network, but is just for visitors to the mausoleum.

Getting about

A subway ticket costs just 5 North Korean Won (9,500 won to the dollar at black market rates). If you need to transfer you will have to buy another ticket, there are no travelcards or season tickets. You can check the best way to get where you are going at most stations (possibly all) contain interactive maps.

Pyongyang subway interactive map. Image: Jodie Hill.

Just press the name of the station you wish to travel to from the list along the bottom, and the route from your current station to your destination lights up. This may or may not be overkill for a network with just two lines and 16 stations.

Incidentally, the logo has the word 지 (ji) which is the first syllable of 지하 (jiha) which means underground. The title just means “Information board”, and the question is, ‘Where are you going?’

Some stations are 360ft (110m) deep, double the depth of the deepest station (Hampstead) on the London Underground.

The escalators at Buhung/Revival station escalator. Image: Jodie Hill.

While this bomb shelter might be useful one day, for now it just means Pyongyangites add ten minutes to their planned journey time – which encourages many people to take the tram or trolley bus instead. When you finally get down to the platform you won’t have long to wait – at most 5 minutes during peak times, 10 minutes off peak.

The North Korean government never misses a chance to propagandise: every station has a theme. For example the station name Gaeson means “Triumphant Return”; it’s situated near where Kim Il-Sung gave his first speech as ruler. Inside the murals depict crowds attentively listening to him. The style is not dissimilar to the grandeur of subways in the former Soviet Union, but with much less emphasis on the workers and modernist art and a lot more on the rulers.

The trains themselves were made in West Germany in the 1950s and 60s. There are allegedly some new trains – but they look suspiciously like their older counterparts given a lick of paint and an electronic information board. The old East German stock has been moved onto the national rail network. While these days powercuts are much rarer than in the 1990s (when, for long periods of the day, the subway didn’t operate at all), a torch and something to read might be advised just in case you get stuck.

The central figure is Kim Il-Sung. Image: Jodie Hill.

The ‘showcase’ station is Buhung (“Revival”):

Images: Jodie Hill.

The others are much the same only without the chandeliers and with much dimmer lights.

Above ground

While electricity is hardly plentiful in North Korea, compared to oil it is pretty abundant. Therefore, buses have gradually been phased out: now trolley buses and trams then form the backbone of the transit network in Pyongyang. As regular as the subway, but with a bigger network and not requiring a long escalator ride – or walk, as the escalators often break down – this is the most popular way to travel around Pyongyang.

The ticket price is again just 5 won (about 0.4p). The trolley bus vehicles were mostly manufactured domestically, while the trams are second hand from communist era Prague. Power cuts are much more frequent on the trolley buses and trams than on the subway: passengers on an affected service are expected to push.

The rail network is rarely used for commuting. Even for those way out in the plush satellite town of Ryeongsong (at the far north of the map, and home of Kim Jong-Un and many other top party cadres), those not high enough ranked for a car take the trolleybus rather than the train to commute to work.

Venturing out of the capital, the official transport network shows signs of near collapse. As far as I am aware, the only other city with a tram network is Chongjin, but it’s hardly extensive – a one line system, eight miles long. It suffers from much more regular power cuts than its Pyongyang counterpart, and relies on hand me down trains from the capital. Many cities have a trolley bus service on paper – but most have no service at all or, at best, a skeleton peak hours service only.

The national rail network is worse. Before you can even get a ticket you must apply for permission – a process that can take days – though nowadays this can be circumvented with a bribe. Tickets are cheap, usually just a few hundred won (a few pence), but with frequent power cuts, journeys take even longer than the 12mph average speed suggests they will. While Kim Jong-Un’s travel habits are unknown, both his father and grandfather liked to travel by private train, and this would lead delays of 24 hours for people travelling in the same area. Freight takes priority over passenger rail, and virtually the entire network is single track and with no sophisticated signalling equipment, meaning trains often have to wait for a long time to let others pass.

A map of the network. Image: Voland77/Wikimedia Commons.

As a result of these problems lot of passenger traffic has moved onto the roads. Enterprising Koreans who have obtained licenses, as well as state operated enterprises (particularly people associated with the police), have bought second hand buses from China and now use them for inter-city transport.

Reports vary about whether travel permits are required for bus travel, and about how hard they are to obtain. Prices fluctuate due to changes in the oil price and vary wildly by region. A journey from Nampo to Pyongyang (about 30 miles) costs $5. A journey of similar length between two cities in the north east costs around $15, while in the north west just $2.

Journeys are not comfortable. North Korean roads are often unpaved, always potholed, and the buses were not in great condition even when they left China. Nevertheless they link the emerging market economy together.  

North Korea road map:

A map of the network. Blue routes are all paved, others mostly unpaved or paved a very long time ago. Image: Voland77/Wikimedia Commons.

For shorter journeys, taxis are now an option in most medium sized cities and even in some rural areas. There are at least four taxi companies operating these days in Pyongyang.

North Korean won won’t get you very far though: taxi drivers want dollars (two of them), to take you anywhere plus another 50 cents for every kilometer you travel, about three times the cost as in North East China. The only network outside Pyongyang I know in detail is one run by a state-owned enterprise in Chongjin, which recently imported dozens of almost new taxis from China. Payment is accepted in North Korean won, Chinese RMB and US dollars; a 10 minute journey costs 1 dollar.

Taxis are beyond the means of most North Koreans, though. The backbone of North Korea’s transport infrastructure is formed by bikes.


Bicycles were illegal in Pyongyang until 1992, and this ban was strictly enforced – but since it was lifted, bike use has really taken off. In smaller towns they often serve as a status symbol as much as transport, much as cars do for many in the west. The wealthiest now ride electric assisted bikes imported from China, though the Ford of North Korea is the Pyongjin bike company, which has cornered 70% of the market according to the leading North Korea scholar Andrei Lankov.

It is still technically illegal for a woman to ride a bike, but this ban is not strictly enforced. (I know of one woman who used to ride her technically illegal bike to her technically illegal small business, a bicycle repair shop.) Legally, every bike needs a license plate, and each rider needs take a test and get a license – but this too is mostly unenforced.

It is illegal to ride on North Korea’s mostly empty roads. This ban is not enforced in most cities, but is in Pyongyang, where the government has started creating cycle paths on the pavements as well as a bike hire scheme. If you can’t afford a bike yourself, a ‘bicycle carrier’ will give you a lift for about five US cents per kilometre – although, like a land based Ryanair, you have to pay more for bags. Both customers and workers in this sector tend to be very poor.

North Korea’s transport mirrors the North Korean economy. Pyongyang just about manages to present itself as a communist city. Outside the capital, though, secret policeman, state-operated enterprises and sole traders make a living – and sometimes a fortune – keeping the country moving among the remains of a communist economy which never delivered.

With thanks to Michael Spavor of Paektu Cultural Exchange and Rowan Beard of Young Pioneer Tours for helpful conversations.  

Michael Hill wants you to be his third twitter follower so you can see more versions of the Pyongyang transport map.