More than 100,000 Detroit families have lost their homes due to illegal tax foreclosure

Houses for sale in Detroit. Image: Getty.

A society’s standards, the folk wisdom goes, are all that keeps it from sliding into moral ruin. The threat of chaos is all around us, we’re told, and our standards act as a sort of gate at the kingdom’s edge. Fail to closely guard their boundaries, and society is left open to the threat of marauding lawlessness.

So: should you find yourself in grinding poverty, and resort to petty shoplifting to avoid starving, there’s a chance you’ll be smacked with a multi-year prison sentence for the violation. Or lift a few cheap items from the world’s largest retail empire in the hopes that you and your children might outrun the jaws of poverty, you risk being robbed of life itself. Such is the fate we offer to the most despised among us. Breach one of our sacred standards, and see it enforced with ruthless efficiency.

But standards are funny things. One might rightly think that a nation even remotely serious about its standards would work to apply them evenly across the society. Yet we know this to be a world bearing little resemblance to our own: we know, with agonising familiarity, that those who possess the material comfort to follow every law and social expectation imaginable often defy them in clear and extravagant ways, and often do so without a whisper from the guardians at the gate.

In recent years, both the horror of the first reality, and the moral hypocrisy of the second, have been on startling display in my hometown of Detroit, where communities are being pounded by the nation’s largest wave of property tax foreclosures since the Great Depression. No one has followed the crisis, and the staggering managerial incompetence behind it, with greater care and precision than Professor Bernadette Atuahene, a professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, and visiting professor at Wayne State Law School. In a guest blog for the ACLU of Michigan, she writes:

“Between 2011 and 2015, one in four Detroit properties were subject to property tax foreclosure.  (…) Local government has caused this crisis. One of our most daunting research findings reveals that between 2009 and 2015, the Detroit Assessment Division assessed between 55 per cent and 85 per cent of homes at rates that violated the Michigan Constitution, which states that a property cannot be assessed at more than 50 percent of its market value.

“More than 100,000 Detroit families have lost their homes due to these illegal tax foreclosure. African-Americans have been most deeply impacted.”

It’s worth pausing to take in the appalling scale of this man-made disaster, along with the managerial soullessness that made it possible.


Over the course of several years, the City of Detroit and the Wayne County Treasury have illegally over-assessed the value of tens of thousands of properties. It then uses these bogus assessments to render the occupants of those properties homeless. Once plundered, properties are then funnelled into the county’s Tax Foreclosure Auction, where many are resold at fire sale prices.

But like any good American horror story, the evil must be gratuitous. As America’s poorest big city, many of Detroit’s homeowners qualify for what’s called the Poverty Tax Exemption: a pathway to wiping out one’s property tax burden completely.

But notoriously bad communication on the part of the city has meant that most homeowners don’t realise that the exemption exists. Even if they did, the process for securing the exemption is a janky, unnavigable mess. The outcome should bring shame to its shameless architects: a stadium’s worth of people, kicked out on their ass, for nonpayment of taxes the law says they were too poor to pay.

It isn't enough to say a few disinterested technocrats made a constitutional goof that ended regrettably. What's happened, and continues to happen, here must be made plain: a clique of state-appointed bandits have illegally plundered 100,000 poor, mostly black Detroiters of their livelihoods, and then ridiculed them as irresponsible for falling victim to the shakedown.

It’s worth mentioning that both the mayor’s and county treasurer’s office have cobbled together some modest efforts to assist homeowners at risk of foreclosure. The institution of payment plans and a citywide reassessment of property values have genuinely helped some. Despite this, the tidal wave rolls onward, swallowing everything in its path. And when the destruction is entirely avoidable, that we’ve only thrown life preservers to some is a sad commentary on our moral imaginations.
Yet like so many crises launched at the hands of men, ours has gone unresolved not for any lack of solutions. Those are obvious.

City and county officials could, for instance, follow the lead of the Coalition to End Unconstitutional Tax Foreclosures, which has pushed, with factual and moral authority, a set of straightforward fixes:

(1) An immediate end to unconstitutional assessments. (2) Some form of reparations for those illegally booted from their homes. (3) And lastly, a moratorium on all tax foreclosures until assessments meet their constitutionally required standards.

And there’s that word again.

At first glance, a standard being imposed on one group of people but not another looks like textbook double-standard-shenanigans. The city plunders 100,000 poor, mostly black homeowners, forcing them deeper into a chamber of economic misery. And when confronted with the hellscape they authored, officials blame the banished for failing to follow the letter of an illegible law. Meanwhile, those same officials act in extravagant defiance of their state’s constitution – and not only do so with impunity, but are crowned leaders of a heroic comeback along the way.

And there’s the big reveal, unmistakable to anyone who bothers to look. It isn’t that ours is a society with two separate and unequal standards for two different groups of people. It’s that ours is a single standard society: where one set of rules is imposed on the most vulnerable with brutal force, while the wealthiest and most powerful act as guardians of a gate they dismantle whenever convenient.

 
 
 
 

You’ve heard of trainspotters and planespotters. Now meet Britain’s growing army of busspotters

Some busspotters in action. Image: Damian Potter.

In the summer of 2014, with too much time on my hands and too little to do, I found myself in the middle of an incredibly active, 200+ person Facebook group. How I ended up here (record scratch, freeze frame) is a little too convoluted and stupid to explain – but what I found was a world that I a) could not have imagined nor b) had any clue even existed.

The group I tumbled into was what I now understand to be a very, very small example of a “busspotting” group – that is, a Facebook group full of dedicated bus enthusiasts which exists to share pictures of buses they see on the road. This group had members from all over the country, with a concentration on northern buses, and was predominantly filled with young, white men.

What I expected to see was a range over relatively interesting buses, holding some significance or another, that were tough to find in your average day-to-day life. This was, largely, not the case. What fascinated me was that the vast majority of the group was not focused on unique buses, new buses, historically significant buses, and so on – but simply on the average bus and or bus route you might take just to get around your city.

What was even more bizarre to me was that people from across the country were meeting up in small towns (Morpeth, Livingston, Stevenage) to take seemingly mundane bus rides to other equally small places (Washington, Gloucester, Grimsby). The busspotters would travel hours on end to meet at these locations simply to ride this bus, often for three or four hours, and experience a bus route they’d never been on before or one that they just particularly enjoyed.

Ooooh. Image: Damian Potter.

After a couple of weeks of silently watching and one semi-ironic post, I left the group. And, for the next three years, I gave barely a thought to bus enthusiasm, as no busspotter group/page/person crossed my path. Unlike similar enthusiasms like planespotting and trainspotting, it didn’t seem to me that busspotting had any significant following.

But, as is the way of these things, a weird thread on Twitter three summers later sparked my memory of my short time in this group. I wanted to see what busspotting was actually and about and if, in fact, it was still a thing.

So I spoke to Damian Potter, an admin on several popular busspotting groups, about what it’s like to be deep into the busspotting scene.

“I used to sit upstairs on double decker buses and 'drive' them, including the pedal movements!” Damian announced right off the bat, speaking of his childhood. “I've been driving coaches at home and abroad since I passed my PCV test in 1994. I've been driving for Transdev Harrogate and District Travel since 1998.”

Damian, as you might have gathered, has been a busspotter since his early youth. Now, at the age of 50, he manages four different busspotting Facebook groupsm, mostly based around the Harrogate area (Transdev Enthusiasts, The Harrogate Bus Company, iTransport Worldwide and Spotting Bus and Coach Spotters). Some of them have over a thousand members.

He also participates in busspotting IRL, travelling around the country participating in busspotting meet-ups and events and co-organising trips along different bus routes. When I asked him what busspotting was to him, he explained that it can manifest in different ways: some people focus on makes of bus and routes, other focus on particular bus companies (National Express is particularly popular). Of course, bus enthusiasm is not solely a British phenomenon, but busspotters can certainly be found in practically every corner of the UK.

“People tend to think that spotters hang around bus stations furtively, with a camera and some curly cheese sandwiches, but this isn't really the case,” Damian continued. That said, he also mentioned some particularly hardcore bus nuts who have been known to trespass on company premises to be the first to snap a picture of a new bus.

“They really do produce some brilliant pictures, though,” he added.


Although much of busspotting culture happens online, predominantly on Facebook, groups often have what are called ‘running days’ which involve meet ups having to do with particular routes. Damian mentioned one particularly popular day following the London Routemaster buses that happen periodically. Not only do these routes draw in enthusiasts, he noted, but also draw huge numbers of tourists who want to claim they’ve ridden on the original London buses.

“I reckon the general public miss the old Routemaster buses. There is only one 'heritage' route in London which still uses Routemaster buses and that's the 15 service between Trafalgar Square and Tower Hill.”

Despite this widespread interest in buses and bus history, though, busspotters often find themselves treated as the lesser of the motor enthusiasts. This became clear to me almost immediately when speaking to Damian, and continued to strike me throughout our conversation; without my saying anything sarcastic, malicious, or snarky, he became instantly defensive of his fellow enthusiasts and of his hobby.

When I asked him why he felt this immediate need to defend busspotting, he explained that people often ridicule busspotters and bus enthusiasm generally, arguing that bus drivers are the most common attackers. “However,” he noted, “if I bring a load of pictures into the canteen they're the first to crowd around to see bus pictures...”

Aaah. Image: Damian Potter.

Despite being perceived as an often-mocked hobby, bus enthusiasm is expanding rapidly, Damien claims. “The bus enthusiast culture is growing, with younger generations getting more involved.” Drawing in new, younger enthusiasts has become easier thanks to social media, as has creating real personal connections. Social media has made it easier for bus enthusiasm to not just stay afloat, but actually thrive over the last several years.

It’s so widespread, in fact, that a national competition is held every year in Blackpool to mark Bus Driver of the Year (Damian himself came in 34th out of 155 back in 2002). This event draws in everyone from the bus world – drivers, manufacturers, tour companies, and enthusiasts alike. Here is one of the many places where great friendships are forged and busspotters who’ve only known each other online can finally meet face-to-face. “Personally I have made some great friends through Facebook,” Damian told me. “I have even stayed over at a friend's house in London a couple of times.”

Busspotting may be less well-known than motor enthusiasms like planespotting and trainspotting, but that very well could change. Thanks to active social media groups and regular in-person meet-ups, people have been able to use busspotting forums as not only a way to find lifelong friends, but also spend more of their free time exploring their hobby with the people they’ve met through these groups and pages who share their enthusiasm. For all the flack it may receive, the future of busspotting looks bright.

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