The Missing Maps project is mapping developing cities to curb the spread of ebola

The Missing Maps project has created maps of cities and villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Image: Uwe Dedering at Wikimedia Commons.

In the age of satellite photography and GPS, it seems unbelievable that parts of the world are still unmapped and uncharted. But, especially in the developing world, entire cities lack reliable, up to date maps, and this can make it hard for humanitarian agencies to do their jobs during natural disasters or outbreaks of disease.

Enter the Missing Maps project, through which the Red Cross, Médecins Sans Frontières and Humanitarian Open Street Maps are crowdsourcing street-level maps of unmapped cities. At the moment, they're focussing on creating maps to track the spread of ebola, and to help medical aid and volunteers reach sufferers more easily. In the long term, they hope to map the most “crisis-prone” parts of the developing world.

This Guardian piece explains how the project works:

The first step is to take satellite images – which, it may surprise you to learn, are often made available to the open mapping community from such unexpected sources as US government agencies and Microsoft – and plug them into the free mapping software OpenStreetMap. 

Volunteers then log in remotely, from anywhere in the world, and use a easy point-and-click tool to literally trace the outlines of buildings, roads, parks and rivers over the satellite image. Remove the image and voila: you have a basic, digital city map.

The project’s coordinators then print out these basic maps and hand them out to local volunteers, who work their way through a small area, filling in the names of streets and buildings. The volunteers then post the maps back to the project’s headquarters in London.

To illustrate the difference the maps can make, compare the two below - on the left is the hand-drawn map used by Médecins Sans Frontières volunteers in Katanga, a province in the Democratic Republic of Congo; to the right is a Missing Maps-created map of Lubumbashi, a city in the DRC: 

Image: MSF.

The project operates through OpenStreetMap, an open-source, online world map editable by anyone. (You can view changes to the map in real time here – be warned, it’s oddly addictive.)

Relying on crowdsourcing is, of course, tricky; especially as the Missing Maps process relies on a degree of digital literacy in its volunteers. As a result, the Guardian piece claims the project will require “the biggest team of digital humanitarian volunteers ever conceived”. But access to detailed city maps could do more than just speed up aid delivery - it could help authorities improve everything from housing policy to waste strategies.

 
 
 
 

Two east London boroughs are planning to tax nightlife to fund the clean up. Will it work?

A Shoreditch rave, 2013. Image: Getty.

No-one likes cleaning up after a party, but someone’s got to do it. On a city-wide scale, that job falls to the local authority. But that still leaves the question: who pays?

In east London, the number of bars and clubs has increased dramatically in recent years. The thriving club scene has come with benefits – but also a price tag for the morning clean-up and cost of policing. The boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets are now looking to nightlife venues to cover these costs.

Back in 2012, councils were given powers to introduce ‘late night levies’: essentially a tax on all the licensed venues that open between midnight and 6am. The amount venues are expected to pay is based on the premises’ rateable value. Seventy per cent of any money raised goes to the police and the council keeps the rest.

Few councils took up the offer. Four years after the legislation was introduced, only eight local authorities had introduced a levy, including Southampton, Nottingham, and Cheltenham. Three of the levies were in the capital, including Camden and Islington. The most lucrative was in the City of London, where £420,000 was raised in the 2015-16 financial year.

Even in places where levies have been introduced, they haven’t always had the desired effect. Nottingham adopted a late night levy in November 2014. Last year, it emerged that the tax had raised £150,000 less than expected in its first year. Only a few months before, Cheltenham scrapped its levy after it similarly failed to meet expectations.


Last year, the House of Lords committee published its review of the 2003 Licensing Act. The committee found that “hardly any respondents believed that late night levies were currently working as they should be” – and councils reported that the obligation to pass revenues from the levy to the police had made the tax unappealing. Concluding its findings on the late night levy, the committee said: “We believe on balance that it has failed to achieve its objectives, and should be abolished.”

As might be expected of a nightlife tax, late night levies are also vociferously opposed by the hospitality industry. Commenting on the proposed levy in Tower Hamlets, Brigid Simmonds, chief executive at the British Beer and Pub Association, said: “A levy would represent a damaging new tax – it is the wrong approach. The focus should be on partnership working, with the police and local business, to address any issues in the night time economy.”

Nevertheless, boroughs in east London are pressing ahead with their plans. Tower Hamlets was recently forced to restart a consultation on its late night levy after a first attempt was the subject of a successful legal challenge by the Association of Licensed Multiple Retailers (ALMR). Kate Nicholls, chief executive at the ALMR, said:

“We will continue to oppose these measures wherever they are considered in any part of the UK and will urge local authorities’ to work with businesses, not against them, to find solutions to any issues they may have.”

Meanwhile, Hackney council intends to introduce a levy after a consultation which revealed 52 per cents of respondents were in favour of the plans. Announcing the consultation in February, licensing chair Emma Plouviez said:

“With ever-shrinking budgets, we need to find a way to ensure the our nightlife can continue to operate safely, so we’re considering looking to these businesses for a contribution towards making sure their customers can enjoy a safe night out and their neighbours and surrounding community doesn’t suffer.”

With budgets stretched, it’s inevitable that councils will seek to take advantage of any source of income they can. Nevertheless, earlier examples of the late night levy suggest this nightlife tax is unlikely to prove as lucrative as is hoped. Even if it does, should we expect nightlife venues to plug the gap left by public sector cuts?