How Ljubljana is making its name as Europe's green capital

Ljubljana. Image: Gilad Rom/Flickr/Creative Commons.

How can a European city create its own unique identity in the 21st century? After all, there are so many places – London, Paris, Rome – which can distinguish themselves from the rest of the pack with an array of monuments and attractions. But what if you're the capital city of a relatively new country?

Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is an excellent place to visit: a city with a pretty castle at its heart that's been present in some form for almost 900 years. This year, it’s trying to make its mark on the map by flaunting its credentials as Europe's Green Capital for 2016, a title awarded by the European Commission.

Of course, the place and the people who live in it have existed for centuries, but Slovenia itself is a relatively new feature of the international scene, first coming into existence when it broke away from Yugoslavia in 1991. In 2004, it became a member of the EU and NATO; in 2007 joined the Eurozone, the first ex-communist country to do so.

The capital has undergone numerous environmental changes in recent years to shape up its green credentials. It’s introduced underground car parking facilities, to get vehicles off the roads. It’s also limited the roads on which cars can travel within the city.  All this has helped the city to decrease traffic by 12 per cent since 2011.

Ljubljana's bike scheme. Image: TAS/Flickr/creative commons.

It’s hoping to double the share of journeys taken by bike, too. The city's own bike hire scheme, BicikeLJ, costs just €3 per year, with unlimited free rides if they last under an hour. Anything above that starts at €1, but you can simply swap bikes at the nearest station before the time's up, making it an insanely cheap travel option.

If you're running out of steam, the city centre hosts Kavalir electric cars, which look like golf carts and can accommodate up to five passengers and roam around the city all day with a simple hop-on, hop-off system for free. The system runs through major inner city routes which are free from other vehicles and personal cars.


Ljubljana's city authority has also set a range of goals to deal with energy and waste management for the next few years. The city wants renewables to provide a quarter of its energy supply by 2020; it’s aiming to cut CO2 emissions by 20 per cent by the same date, too. And, thanks to separate waste bins throughout the city, the population was already recycling two-thirds of their waste by 2014.

Sure, the Slovenian capital is smaller than many of the large cities in the UK, home to just under 300,000 people. But its small size is what makes it a great place to experiment with new ideas of social renewal which can be a model for other larger cities. Here's hoping Britain can follow many of these lessons.

 
 
 
 

The smartphone app placing virtual statues of women on the map

A virtual Edith Wharton in Central Park, New York City. Image: The Whole Story Project.

If you’re a woman, then in order for you to be immortalised in stone, bronze or whatever once you’ve shuffled off this mortal coil, you should either have royal blood or be willing to be sculpted naked. That is the rule of thumb.

A statue that actually celebrates a woman’s achievements is a rare sight. Writing in the New Statesman last year, equality campaigner Caroline Criado-Perez found that out of 925 statues in Britain, as listed by the Public Monuments and Sculpture Association, only 158 are of solo women. Of these, 46 are of royalty, including 29 of Queen Victoria. Fourteen depict the Virgin Mary.

There are signs of change, albeit slow. The suffragist Millicent Fawcett is set to be honoured with a statue in Parliament Square, where currently all 11 of the statues are of men. (They include Nelson Mandela and a nine-foot Gandhi.) The monument is to be unveiled next year to celebrate the centenary of British women receiving the right to vote.

Elsewhere, the late comedian Victoria Wood is being honoured with a statue that’ll be erected in Bury, Greater Manchester. In the Moss Side area of the city, a statue of Emmeline Pankhurst will be unveiled in 2019. Unlike the Fawcett one, neither of these is expected to receive public money, relying on crowdfunding and other sources instead.

So how many more statues of women, regardless of how they’re funded, would we need to build in order to reduce the gender gap? Well, according to Jonathan Jones, art critic at the Guardian, the magic number is: zero.

Jones’s argument, back in March, was that building statues doesn’t advance feminism, but simply traps us in the past. He wrote:

Statues don’t hold public memory. They politely bury it. These well-meaning images melt into the background scenery of our lives.

Whether this is empirically true is questionable, but it’s true that we tend not to erect them as often as we used to anyway. This is partly because there is less space available for such monuments – a noticeable disadvantage cities of the present have compared to those of the past. In order to reduce the imbalance, statues of men would probably have to be removed; many would no doubt be okay with that, but it would mean erasing history.

One partial answer to the problem is augmented reality. It can’t close the gender gap, but it could shine a spotlight on it.

To that end, an advertising agency in New York launched an app at the beginning of May. The Whole Story allows users to place virtual statues of women on a map; other uses can then view and find out more about the individuals depicted at their real-world locations, using their smartphone cameras.


Currently, users have to upload their own virtual statues using 3D-modelling software. But going forward, the project aims for an open collaboration between designers, developers and organisations, which it hopes will lead to more people getting involved.

Contributions submitted so far include a few dozen in New York, several in Washington and one of Jane Austen in Hyde Park. There are others in Italy and the Czech Republic.

Okay, it’s an app created by a marketing firm, but there are legitimate arguments for it. First, the agency’s chief creative office has herself said that it’s important to address the gender imbalance in a visual way in order to inspire current and future generations: you can’t be what you can’t see, as the saying going.

Second, if the physical presence of statues really is diminishing and they don’t hold public memory, as Jones argues, then smartphones could bridge the gap. We live our lives through our devices, capturing, snapping and storing moments, only to forget about them but then return to and share them at a later date. These memories may melt away, but they’ll always be there, backed up to the cloud even. If smartphones can be used to capture and share the message that a gender imbalance exists then that’s arguably a positive thing.  

Third, with the success of Pokemon Go, augmented reality has shown that it can encourage us to explore public spaces and heighten our appreciation for architectural landmarks. It can also prove useful as a tool for learning about historical monuments.

Of course no app will replace statues altogether. But at the very least it could highlight the fact that women’s achievements are more than just sitting on a throne or giving birth to the son of God.

Rich McEachran tweets as @richmceachran.

Want more of this stuff? Follow CityMetric on Twitter or Facebook.