Build up or build out? How to tackle urban density

The Sapphire Tower: one of a new generation of residential towers proposed for Cardiff. Image: Nicholas Socrates Associates.

These days, we almost expect that any large-scale, big impact inner-city development will be a skyscraper. But for smaller cities in the UK these proposals can still appear as fairly extreme, and their approval contentious.

Take, for example, Cardiff, where a new 42-storey, 132m high building of affordable student accommodation is due to become Wales' new tallest building. At just under half the height of London’s Shard, the new building seems paltry when compared to the world’s skyscrapers – but developments like this are still big news for smaller cities.

This contention with skyscrapers is something that has been hashed out again and again in cities all over the world. But rather than focus on how high we are building new housing developments, or where they are situated, it is time that we looked at the big picture.

Under pressure

The pressure to accommodate the housing demand in the UK is enormous. However, the opportunity is there to look more at holistic solutions that achieve balanced outcomes. Unlike London, cities such as Cardiff, Manchester, Sheffield and Birmingham, to name a few, are not short of space; they still have capacity to accommodate the housing needed, while promoting happiness and well-being.


Building high rise residential units should be given a great deal of thought, even in those cases when the setting can accommodate them appropriately. There is sufficient scientific evidence of the negative health and social implications of dense living. Nottingham, for example, among other cities, is currently demolishing its iconic towers the Lenton flats, to give way to more positive residential alternatives.

The issue of urban density has been the subject of debate and research for decades, if not centuries. Humans can adapt to their environments but they do so at a cost – and a number of studies have highlighted the links between density and stress as well as other physical and psychological disorders.

High-rise living can be isolating, separating residents from daily urban life and the activities that take place on the streets. Up to three or four storeys, however, one can still comfortably walk down to the street. From a window, one can connect visually and feel part of the public scene. For this reason, many built environment professionals believe four storeys is the maximum acceptable building height to achieve a decent level of connection, protect health and deliver the right level of density at the same time.

Although it may then seem better for our health, low urban density and detached housing in “out of town” locations have been branded as one of the largest causes of greenhouse gases emissions because of car use. Lower densities also make it harder to develop a neighbourhood feeling: they increase travelling distances and may be more detrimental to farming and species preservation due to their potential expansion into agricultural land.

High or low

Despite the perks and pitfalls to both inner-city and low urban density living, people’s preference tends towards the latter. A study conducted in the US found that some people prefer low density suburbs because freestanding houses in open wide areas enhance their self-esteem and sense of ownership, and are convenient for driving and parking. Large UK housing developers have also found that this “American Dream” model also appeals to customers who want “character; neighbourhoods that feel like places with their own attractive identity”.

The major concern over increasing density is the public perception that privacy would be compromised and, although this issue can be resolved with intelligent design, traditional models remain largely the norm. Some aspects of design are essential to achieving a successful density level where people still find peace, a place where they can retreat from the stress of everyday life, a distinctive character, a sense of identity and community belonging.

But which approach should we choose – building up or moving out?

There is still debate about whether humans should live in lower density settlements or if the damage caused to the environment through this approach is simply too large. Unfortunately, both ends of the spectrum – suburbia and high rise – still dominate landscapes. And while people’s preferences justify low density, the argument that higher density better delivers sustainability is often misinterpreted and misused to justify development led by land value and to secure larger economic gains.

Some recent schemes – such as Accordia in Cambridge and Trent Basin in Nottingham Waterside – demonstrate that common ground can be achieved, delivering models of medium density with compact yet green living as a compromise, to create desirable urban environments while also delivering on sustainability.

However, prototypes like these often require innovative and creative funding mechanisms to make schemes feasible; and traditional residential development models are not currently sufficient to cope with all the pressures of the market and legislative frameworks. Until the planning, regulatory and financial mechanisms take the issues of environmental and social sustainability seriously, it is unlikely we will see positive changes in the design and delivery of residential schemes.

Perhaps a bigger effort is required from the built environment industry as a whole to find positive solutions to the issue of housing in UK urban areas. Skyscrapers should be more carefully considered for cities like Cardiff, where medium density developments are still viable and could provide the best of both worlds.The Conversation

Laura Alvarez is a lecturer in architectural technology at Nottingham Trent University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

 
 
 
 

Barnet council has decided a name for its new mainline station. Exciting!

Artist's impression of the new Brent Cross. Image: Hammerson.

I’ve ranted before about the horror of naming stations after the lines that they’re served by (screw you, City Thameslink). So, keeping things in perspective as ever, I’ve been quietly dreading the opening of the proposed new station in north London which has been going by the name of Brent Cross Thameslink.

I’ve been cheered, then, by the news that station wouldn’t be called that at all, but will instead go by the much better name Brent Cross West. It’s hardly the cancellation of Brexit, I’ll grant, but in 2017 I’ll take my relief wherever I can find it.

Some background on this. When the Brent Cross shopping centre opened besides the A406 North Circular Road in 1976, it was only the third large shopping mall to arrive in Britain, and the first in London. (The Elephant & Castle one was earlier, but smaller.) Four decades later, though, it’s decidedly titchy compared to newer, shinier malls such as those thrown up by Westfield – so for some years now, its owners, Hammerson, have wanted to extend the place.

That, through the vagaries of the planning process, got folded into a much bigger regeneration scheme, known as Brent Cross Cricklewood (because, basically, it extends that far). A new bigger shopping centre will be connected, via a green bridge over the A406, to another site to the south. There you’ll find a whole new town centre, 200 more shops, four parks, 4m square feet of offices space and 7,500 homes.

This is all obviously tremendously exciting, if you’re into shops and homes and offices and not into depressing, car-based industrial wastelands, which is what the area largely consists of at the moment.

The Brent Cross site. Image: Google.

One element of the new development is the new station, which’ll sit between Hendon and Cricklewood on the Thameslink route. New stations are almost as exciting as new shops/homes/offices, so on balance I'm pro.

What I’ve not been pro is the name. For a long time, the proposed station has been colloquially referred to as Brent Cross Thameslink, which annoys me for two reasons:

1) Route names make rubbish modifiers because what if the route name changes? And:

2) It’s confusing, because it’s nearly a mile from Brent Cross tube station. West Hampstead Thameslink (euch), by contrast, is right next to West Hampstead tube.

Various other names have been proposed for the station. In one newsletter, it was Brent Cross Parkway; on Wikipedia, it’s currently Brent Cross South, apparently through confusion about the name of the new town centre development.

This week, though, Barnet council quietly confirmed it’d be Brent Cross West:

Whilst the marketing and branding of BXS needs to be developed further, all parties agree that the station name should build upon the Brent Cross identity already established. Given the station is located to the west of Brent Cross, it is considered that the station should be named Brent Cross West. Network Rail have confirmed that this name is acceptable for operational purposes. Consequently, the Committee is asked to approve that the new station be named Brent Cross West.

Where the new station will appear on the map, marked by a silly red arrow. Image: TfL.

That will introduce another irritating anomaly to the map, giving the impression that the existing Brent Cross station is somehow more central than the new one, when in fact they’re either side of the development. And so:

Consideration has also been given as to whether to pursue a name change for the tube station from “Brent Cross” to “Brent Cross East”.

Which would sort of make sense, wouldn’t it? But alas:

However owing to the very high cost of changing maps and signage London-wide this is not currently being pursued.

This is probably for the best. Only a handful of tube stations have been renamed since 1950: the last was Shepherd’s Bush Market, which was until 2008 was simply Shepherd's Bush, despite being quite a long way from the Shepherd's Bush station on the Central line. That, to me, suggests that one of the two Bethnal Green stations might be a more plausible candidate for an early rename.


At any rate: it seems unlikely that TfL will be renaming its Brent Cross station to encourage more people to use the new national rail one any time soon. But at least it won’t be Brent Cross Thameslink.

Jonn Elledge is the editor of CityMetric. He is on Twitter as @jonnelledge and also has a Facebook page now for some reason. 

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